is  a  universal 
phenomenon  and it is rooted in
the primitive societies, where women cared 
for  children  and 
other  dependent members  of 
the  family.  The women’s involvement in matters of care is
found in all cultures and the modes of its expression are driven by the
dominant philosophical context of each era1. The
term Nursing is highly connected to the concept of ‘care’ as nurses provide
nursing care in order to help people to promote and maintain their health as
well as to care for individuals and families during illness, disability, and in
suffering2.   Leininger  
states that care is not completely a property of nursing, but is a universal
experience that occurs with variations in all human cultures.

Although as a concept it is not exclusively a
phenomenon that belongs to the nursing field, in spite of the universality of
the experience of care, a universally accepted definition does not exists,
while there is a real dispute about the role of the person providing care
within a framework of personal and professional relationships. In a
philosophical analysis of the concept of care proposed by Nel Nodding points
out that the motive of those who provide care is to remove or alleviate the
pain and discomfort of those who are receiving the care.

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Gilligan (1982) proposes the
concept of care within an ethical framework emphasizing that care is associated
with a sense of morality and duty, which women have innate, while Ray (1987)
argues that care is directly related to maturity, technical skills,
interpersonal and communication skills, and a sense of morality that the person
who provides the care owns. However, as pointed out by Swanson (1991) a
universal definition for the concept ‘care’ has yet to be found and there are
many conflicting views regarding the meaning of ‘caring’ in interpersonal and
professional relationships.

Leininger (1988) defines caring
as an action to assist or support a person or a group to meet open or
anticipated needs in order to improve the conditions and the style of
life.  By emphasizing the importance of
care, Leininger argues that the actions and the decisions related to people’s
care make a crucial difference and produce therapeutic effects. Watson
(1985) argues that the concept of caring embraces also the concept of nursing,
indicating characteristically that caring is the moral ideal of nursing because
it contains the protection, the enhancement and the preservation of human
dignity. Caring for people embraces moral norms and values, a desire and a
dedication to this purpose.

Sobel (1969) defines human
care as the feeling of care, respect and count another human being who appears
among humans, while Roach (1984) claims that the human way of being
contains in itself the capacity to care, the tendency for providing care to
yourself and to others, the response to needs, and activation of the ability to
care through specific actions. Mayeroff (1971) describes caring as a
process, a way of relating with another person that involves development over
time through mutual trust as well as deepening and qualitative development of
the relationship of the people who receive and provide care.



According James Michael and N.J. Pattan
Counseling is the relationship between two persons in which one of them
attempts to assist the other in so organizing himself as to attain a particular
form of happiness adjustment to a life situation or in short self
actualization. Counseling always involves a one to one relationship, which is
client and one guidance worker in a formal or an informal interview situation.3

2.1. Meaning and goal of counseling

Several counselors consider the definitions given by
Gustard (1953) as a very comprehensive statement indicating both the scope as
well as the function of counseling. According to him “counseling is a learning
oriented process, carried on in a simple and one to one social environment, in
which the counselor who is professionally competent in relevant psychological
skills and knowledge seeks to assist the client by methods appropriate to the
latter’s needs and within the context of 
the total programme, to learn how 
to put such understanding into effect in relation to more clearly
perceived, realistically defined goals to the end that the client may become a
happier and more productive member of the society.”4

The goal of counseling is to help individuals to
overcome their present and future problems. This means that counseling should
start early in school and should continue in order to enable the individual to
meet vocational and personal problems of adjustment in later life.

The major objective of the counseling is to help
individual to become self-sufficient, self-dependent, self-directed and to
adjust themselves efficiently to the demands of modern life. Individuals are
assisted to enhance their personal, emotional and intellectual development
during the counseling. Therefore, the counselor’s services are preventive,
developmental and therapeutic in nature. In order to assist the clients the
counselor must understand their needs, motives, perceptions, defenses and so on.
In this sense, counseling could be defined as a therapeutic experience for
otherwise reasonably healthy persons faced with problems. According to Rogers
(1942), “effective counseling consists of a definitely structured
permissive relationship which allows the client to gain an understanding about him
to a degree, which enables him to take positive steps in the light of his new

three levels of counseling based on the distinct feature of it can be mentioned
as informal counseling which can be done by any person with experience in life
and not necessarily a professional. Another level can be that of non specialist
counseling, which is usually carried out as part of the work of a teacher. The
third category is that of professional counseling, which is always done by a
professional who have knowledge and experience as well as the skills of

1 Maclean,
1974; Sapountzi et al., 1992; Sapountzi-Krepia, 2000

2 Sapountzi-Krepia,

3 https://www.slideshare.net/ranjanattri5/https-172192250coursefilefrmuploadcontent

4 S.
Narayana rao, counseling and guidance

5 https://www.slideshare.net/ranjanattri5/https-172192250coursefilefrmuploadcontent


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