1) When a company controls every step of its business from the production of its own supplies to the distribution of its product which the company avoids middlemen, its known as Vertical Integration. On the other hand, Horizontal Combination is when one company buys competing companies in the same industry.  2) The Dawes Act divided the land of almost all tribes into small portions that were distributed to Indian families who would adopt habits of civilized life to become American citizens. The remaining land was sold off to white purchasers. Even though the act resulted in the destruction of Indian cultural traditions and the loss of some tribal land, it enormously benefited the whites. The Dawes Act purpose was to attack tribalism by encouraging Indians to adopt social white norms.3) Political machines are organizations that control a political party’s activities. They gain support by reaching to every neighborhood commanding support for the return of rewards. An authoritative boss wins support from the city’s immigrant poor by telling them they will receive a private welfare system which will provide them with jobs during hard times, fuel, and food. He will fake close ties with labor unions and railroad men. They plundered the city of a lot of money due to businessman and political reformers paying tribute to political machines.4) Sherman Antitrust Act restricted any practices or business combinations that restrained free trade and was not effective because the Congress was only authorized by the Constitution to regulate commerce and not manufacturing. Interstate Commerce Act was meant to regulate economic activity but was not effective because it did not have much power to establish its own rates.5) The liberal reformers were a group of professionals and editors that apart from the Republican Party back in 1872. They helped to change the northern opinion about reconstruction. Liberal reformers believed that voting should be only for property owners, democracy is turning into a threat towards property rights and individual liberty, and that the lower class people use the government to benefit their interests.6) The Protestant Moral Reform was a movement done by Protestant preachers who focused on attacking individual sins by promoting political solutions to the problems caused by the threats to religion, city growth, and labor conflict. They were supported by southerners who played a role in moral legislation and helped earn the reputation as the Bible Belt for the region. On the other hand, the Social Gospel claimed that the equalization of power and wealth was required for spiritual self-development and freedom. The movement was an effort that originated for the reformation of Protestant churches by making them more appealing to poor urban neighborhoods and making them alert about the social problems of the era. Relief programs and missions were placed in urban areas to construct better homes for the working class, get rid of child labor and poverty, and to demand safety and health laws.


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