What is gaharu?

Gaharu is the most expensive wood in the universe can be found on gaharu trees. It is valued in many civilizations for its typical aroma. Therefore, it has been used intensively in production of incense and aromas. High quality gaharu can be produced fromAquilaria spp. ,which belongs to the household Thymelaeaceae.

Formation of gaharu is a pathological procedure where it is formed due to the hurt on the root or subdivisions. In natural wood, merely 7 – 10 % of the trees are bring forthing gaharu of course. Therefore, unnaturally injured the trees ( besides known as vaccination ) are introduced in bring oning the production of gaharu.

Aquilaria spp.that we sell harmonizing to geographic country:

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  1. Local ( Malaysia’s species )
  2. China’s species

If you need me to present, I would state China’s species. From my point of position, China’s species can at least shorten the waiting period for two old ages. But, what do you believe?

How to works gaharu trees?

In order to increase the survival rate of transplanted seedlings, seting holes should be prepared before the seedlings are planted in the field. First of all, seting hole is prepared and left for 1 – 2 hebdomad ( s ) with rain and sunshine react repeatedly. Through this method, the dirt is oxygenated, which mean it helps the root growing.

Afterward, organic fertiliser such as composted cow droppings or composted poulet droppings ( necessitate to be to the full composted so that the bacteriums contain in it are to the full killed ) is added to the hole with a bed of dirt covered on the fertiliser. Then the seedlings are planted in approximately two-third of the dirt from polybag is above land bed. The hole is so filled with dirt and the boundary is chamfered to better H2O drainage. Then the seedlings are covered with either sun shade cyberspace or coconut foliages and left for it to turn. Normally it will take around 1 – 2 month ( s ) for the seedlings to hold new foliages. Then, the shadiness can be removed. Once the roots absorb the fertiliser, it will turn faster.

Cares to be taken:

  1. Flood are could non be planted with gaharu trees. Even inundation will merely go on one time to twice a twelvemonth which might be last merely for an hr or even half an hr. This is because after the roots are submerged in H2O, there are high possibilities that the roots are infected by Fungi. Possibly alterations can non be seen on the first few months or even old ages. But, really the roots are get downing to decompose yearss by yearss which will kill the trees in long term.
  2. In consideration of possibilities to hold rotten roots, gaharu trees could non be planted in heavy dirts. The ground is heavy dirt will hold many clay atoms that will retain H2O and dead H2O are go oning all the clip. So, gaharu trees planted in this country will finally decease.
  3. Other than the causes above, chemicals are non advisable to be used in gaharu plantation. Gaharu can be used in bring forthing medical specialties. So, chemicals such as weedkiller, fungicide, insect powder and chemical fertiliser should be avoided.
  4. Weather before and after planted are really important particularly within that seting hebdomad. Gaharu seedlings can be planted one or two twenty-four hours ( s ) after rain. This will increase the survival rate. If the conditions after seting gaharu seedlings is really hot, irrigating and shadowing are necessary in order to keep the endurance rate.
  5. Gaharu seedlings prefer shadiness and damp conditions. Hence, when the seedlings are foremost planted in the field, sun shade cyberspace or dry coconut foliages should be used to supply the fly-by-night state of affairs. Of class, the latter will be more cost effectual. Besides, large healthy trees besides can be retained in the countries that wish to works gaharu seedlings as shadowing intent.
  6. Normally, when we send you the seedlings, we will H2O it. So, the seedlings sent are recommended to be planted on that peculiar twenty-four hours. If you wish to works the seedlings a few yearss after, you should at least H2O the dirt one dark before seting it in your field.


Inoculation can be done when the trees’ diameter reached at 15cm. For China’s species, the expected waiting period is 3 old ages and for local species, the waiting period is between 4 – 5 old ages. Then, we merely necessitate to protract the reaping one or two twelvemonth ( s ) subsequently after vaccination for a better quality gaharu.


In order to reap gaharu, the trees are harvested along with its roots. Then, non gaharu bring forthing portion ( white wood country ) is removed to uncover the gaharu.


Gaharu has been used in Middle East, Egypt, Japan, China and India since 3,000 old ages ago ( Mark et al. , 2013 ) . It has been widely used in spiritual and ceremonial context in Islam, Buddhism and Christianity. However, merely 7 – 10 % of of course grown gaharu trees is bring forthing gaharu and it is hard to cognize whether the trees is bring forthing gaharu or non from its outside. This lead overuse where has driven the species into close extinction.

Its rareness has urged on increasing value and higher utilizations of gaharu seem to turn. The merchandises processed from gaharu presents included:

  1. Gaharu wood french friess ( for combustion intents ) ;
  2. Incenses ;
  3. Gaharu watchbands and necklaces ;
  4. Beverages such as tea and vino ;
  5. Carvings ;
  6. Gaharu oil ;
  7. Perfume ;
  8. Medicative merchandises ;
  9. Insect repellant ; and
  10. Daily merchandises such as soaps and shampoo.

Largest terminal users of gaharu– Middle East states, Japan, Taiwan, Republic of China and Europe

Largest re-exporter of gaharu– Singapore

Main gaharu merchandises manufacturer– Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam and Malaysia

Costss per tree

Presents, the closest planting distance suggested is 5ft Ten 5ft. The principle is for the trees to back up each other when there is a strong air current. With the seting distance, we can guarantee one acre land can be planted with at least 1,600 gaharu trees.

With the vaccination demands stated in the vaccination, we can gauge the cost per tree and with seedling cost, organ transplant cost and upkeep and care cost. For China’s species gaharu seedlings, we will cipher the cost with 5 old ages as a unit of ammunition where vaccination is expected to be happen on 3rdtwelvemonth and harvest home is done 2 old ages subsequently. For local species gaharu seedlings, the costs are calculated with vaccination expected to be happen by 5Thursdaytwelvemonth and harvested on twelvemonth 7.


Local gaharu species

China’s gaharu species

Gaharu seedling

RM 20.00

RM 25.00


RM 3.00

RM 3.00

Upkeep & A ; care

( RM 12/tree/year )

RM 60.00

RM 84.00

Entire costs

RM 83.00

RM 112.00

As reported by Surhati et Al. ( 2011 ) , productiveness of gaharu tree with diameter between 15cm to 25cm will bring forth an norm of 0.75kg high quality gaharu and 4kg low quality gaharu. However, we will merely presume one tree can bring forth 2kg of low quality gaharu at the monetary value of RM 2,000/kg alternatively of exaggerate net income can be earn with one gaharu tree. So, the expected return from a gaharu tree is:


Expected gross revenues

Gaharu wood french friess ( RM 2,000/kg )

RM 4,000

So, for China species, the expected return is

= RM 4,000 – RM 83=RM 3,917

And for local species, the expected return is

= RM 4,000 – RM 112=RM 3,888


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