Introduction

The ICC CWC is one of the universe ‘s largest events, which attracts 1000000s of individuals, non merely from the existent attending to the games but besides through the media ( cricketworldcup.com, 2006 ) . It was so an honor for the Caribbean as a part to host this esteemed mega event which was even vied for by the United States of America.

The universe ‘s 3rd largest event was hosted in nine Caribbean states between March 11 and April 28, 2007 ( Sunday Gleaner, 2007a ) . See Appendix A. The gap ceremonial was held at the freshly built multi-purpose bowl in Trelawny, Jamaica on March 11, 2007.

Hosting CWC 2007 in the Caribbean was a really alone agreement particularly since the districts are separated by the sea. A batch of planning and investing had to be done in footings of substructure and superstructure developments within each of the districts, proper programming of lucifers and transit, execution of assorted policies among other logistic agreements, all of which were at a high cost.

Similarly, there were many outlooks among the occupants and the private sectors.

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It was promised that 10s of 1000s of individuals would be coming to the Caribbean districts to pass 1000000s of dollars and this would positively impact touristry in the part ( Sunday Gleaner, 2007a ) . The major concern hence, had to make with the benefits gained from this event in each of the hosting district and the Caribbean as a whole.

The chief intent of this chapter was to measure the socio-economic impacts of the ICC CWC 2007 on the Caribbean states that hosted the event and besides the part as a whole. The survey aimed at comparing the projected impacts with the existent 1s and besides assessed any hereafter costs to bear or benefits to be derived. These impacts were assessed in footings of what was proposed, what was really achieved and the projections for the hereafter.

In order to to the full measure the impact of this event on the Caribbean part, the societal and economic environmental impacts were critically reviewed. The findings from this survey will be used to supply valuable information to policymakers and event contrivers for the planning and executing of future featuring events in the part.

Many events are termed particular events as they enlighten, celebrate, entertain or dispute the experience of a group of people. Sporting events is merely one such class of particular events. This can be traced back to the ancient Olympic Games which were first held in 776BC in Greece as a spiritual festival of Zeus, the main Greek God. This game continued for about 1,200 old ages and ended in 393 BC by the Roman Emperor Theodosius. The modern Olympic Games which began in Athens in 1896 and so held in Paris in 1900 are held every four old ages thenceforth in other topographic points ( Shone & A ; Parry, 2004 ) . The most recent one was held in Beijing, China in August 2008.

Harmonizing to McMahon-Beattie & A ; Yeoman ( 2004 ) , the sporting and leisure industries have shown significant growing and diverseness over the past 10 old ages and are now accepted as a topic on its ain. Although the nature of featuring events has non changed significantly, modern games are now a major economic activity. Shone & A ; Parry ( 2004 ) noted that the nature of the Greek Olympic Games was fundamentally similar to modern times as they offered societal events and a parade of title-holders after the concluding twenty-four hours.

There are several ways in which featuring events can impact a finish or community. However for the intent of this research, merely two will be analyzed: societal impacts and economic impacts.

Social Impacts of Sporting Events

A clean event can impact a community or finish through the integrating and engagement of the hosting community particularly in footings of planning, forming and organizing. Cultural impacts of athleticss are truly non new developments as these activities have been easing the interaction of assorted civilizations and subcultures ( Shone & A ; Parry, 2004 ) .

Holder ( 2003 ) pointed to the function of athleticss in the societal development of all communities. He made mention to the 776 BC Olympic Games in Greece which he noted, created harmoniousness among all and facilitated a pact where participants to the event could go unmolested. Apart from engineering, communicating and touristry, there is likely no other activity that has brought states and continents together, irrespective of distance, civilization and linguistic communication. Sport non merely provides the stimulation for local enterprisers, civic leaders and the community but it besides brings assorted degrees of the society together such as the organisers, voluntaries and enterprisers to work towards a common end ( Holder, 2003 ) .

Sporting events should non be imposed upon a community as a agency of work outing societal and economic jobs. Shone & A ; Parry ( 2004 ) warned that although a clean event can be seen as a potency for beef uping weak community constructions and bettering relationships among different cultural groups, it must non be viewed as a Panacea for local societal and economic jobs.

Economic Impacts of Sporting Events

Mega featuring events are known to excite economic growing and development. For illustration, the Olympics in Sydney ( Australia ) and Atlanta ( Georgia ) were linked with the macro-economic development program of those states and they proved to hold positively impacted concern development, trade and investings ( JAMPRO, 2006 ) . See Appendix B for specific economic impacts on selected states.

In add-on, Business Clubs are now partnering with mega featuring events so as to profit from the promotional activities and future concern. In the instance of the Sydney Olympic Games, Business Club Australia provided networking chances and attracted 16,000 visitants by associating to the Commonwealth ‘s Trade Visitors Business Programme. Business Clubs were besides successfully linked to the Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City and the Athens Olympic Games ( JAMPRO, 2006 ) .

Sporting events can besides supply economic benefits to the host state through touristry.

In an reference to the Caribbean Tourism Organization ( CTO ) Teachers Forum held in July 2003 in Grenada, Holder ( 2003 ) , the so Secretary General of CTO asserted that there is a immense synergism between athleticss and touristry which presents economic benefits, as touristry includes countries such as transit, the building and redevelopment of installations, Tourss and usage of resorts, and besides creates assorted signifiers of employment. He supported his statement by mentioning to the Sports Travel Magazine which in 1999 estimated that the athleticss – related travel and touristry market had an approximative value of US $ 118.3 billion.

Sporting events are major grounds for infrastructural development which consecutively stimulates economic development. For case, the 1991 Sheffield Student Games led to the development of Sheffield. Facilities such as the Ponds Forge Pool, the Don Valley Athletic Stadium and the Sheffield Arena were built to ease this event. Other developments such as a ropeway system, the Meadowhall Shopping Centre, a manifold film and other concerns facilitated the economic development of Sheffield. Although the Sheffield Student Games resulted in fiscal loss, in the long term it has contributed vastly to the development of Sheffield ( Shone & A ; Parry, 2004 ) .

In Canada, featuring events are deemed as feasible economic activities. However, before a determination is made refering the hosting of any games, an Economic Impact Assessment ( EIA ) is conducted to come close the degree of economic activity that will ensue from the event. This is done by the Canadian Sport Tourism Alliance ( CSTA ) whose mission is to increase Canadian capacity every bit good as fight in the hosting of both national and international sporting

events. In order to standardise the end products of the EIA, the following techniques are implemented:

Using standardised visitant outgo profiles which include primary informations collected by the CSTA from jocks, managers, referees and witnesss and secondary informations from Statistics Canada.

Using a theoretical account which was developed and modified by the Canadian Tourism Research Institute to bring forth estimations of the economic impact realized from the outgo inputs.

The usage of Statistics Canada ‘s ‘Canadian Travel Survey ‘ informations showed on mean the day-to-day sum visitants spend at featuring events. As a consequence of this information, the key measurings used to distinguish visitants ‘ outgo can be ascertained. These indexs include the person ‘s function at the event, that is, whether the individual was a witness, participant or media forces ; the distance they traveled ; age and length of stay ( sportandtechnology.com, 2004 ) .

The Sport Tourism Economic Assessment Model ( STEAM ) as it is called is now being used as a scientific tool in mensurating the likely impacts of athletics events. In October 2003, the STEAM theoretical account was used to measure the economic impact of the Road World Cycling Championships held in the metropolis of Hamilton. Prior to Hamilton losing its command on the 2010 Commonwealth Games to New Delhi, STEAM was used to measure the perchance economic impact of hosting these games. ( sportandtechnology.com, 2004 ) .

On the contrary, Masterman ( 2004 ) posited that the hosting of featuring events, irrespective of their size and nature, do hold long term deductions on the hosting environment. Some of these deductions include:

Governments utilizing money to program for international sporting events which is otherwise needed for the societal well-being of the occupants in footings of wellness attention and instruction.

Benefits non widespread as the SMEs or occupants did non profit economically.

High Balance of Payments by both authoritiess and concern operators.

SME ‘s losing assets as a consequence of non being able to serve loans used to better installations and merchandises.

Governments may increase revenue enhancements to recognize financess to pay for money borrowed.

The ICC CWC 2007 games in the Caribbean have been described as a really alone understanding. Dehring ( 2007a ) noted that there have ne’er been any other agreements like this in other World Cups. Caribbean Leaderships were themselves enthusiastic about this agreement and besides perceived it to be the pilot trial for the Caribbean Single Market and Economy ( CSME ) . With all of this in head, the proposed socio-economic impacts of this mega featuring event in the Caribbean will be explored in footings of the followers:

Proposed Social Impacts

The United Nations ( UN ) perceived athletics to be really of import in bettering public wellness. This impression, nevertheless, goes beyond the direct benefits of physical activities as athletics is deemed to be a tool to back up HIV/AIDS programmes. With these two positions in head, this organisation has untaken several enterprises to include the constitution of the International Working Group on Sport for Development and Peace at the 2004 Athens Olympic Games ; the sign language of a Memorandum of Understanding with the International Olympic Committee ( IOC ) in 2005 to actively affect athletics in the response to HIV ( IOC Factsheet, 2008 ) and the declaration of the twelvemonth 2005 as the ‘Year of Sports and Physical Education ( UN News Centre, 2008 ) .

It is hence non a surprise that the UN Programme on HIV/AIDS ( UNAIDS ) along with the United Nation Children ‘s Fund ( UNICEF ) and the Caribbean Broadcast Media ( CMB ) collaborated with the ICC in planing a promotional programme that focused on kids and immature people populating with and are affected with HIV in the Caribbean. This state of affairs was considered a chronic issue, as in 2006, two hundred and 50 1000 ( 250,000 ) individuals in this part were populating with this disease, of which a important sum was among kids and immature people. It was besides reported that 27 1000 ( 27,000 ) were freshly infected. See Appendix C ( Unicef, 2007 ) .

In an attempt to advance the Spirit of Cricket and its Positive Impact on Society, Piot noted that ( 2007, p.1 & A ; 2 ) :

“ Sport is a force for alteration that can interrupt down barriers, construct self esteem and teach life accomplishments and societal behavior. By foregrounding HIV/AIDS issues, the ICC Cricket World Cup and its cricketing stars are demoing precisely the sort of exceeding response needed for the exceeding challenge of AIDS. ”

With an estimated two billion and more telecasting audience, the activities at ICC CWC in the Caribbean was intended to supply information on the stigma and favoritism environing HIV/AIDS every bit good as information pertaining to the protection against this disease. The four key countries suggested were the bar of female parent to child transmittal, increased entree to antiretroviral therapy for kids and immature people who need intervention, instruction programmes to assist forestall HIV transmittal and increased support for kids who are orphaned and left vulnerable by AIDS ( Unicef, 2007 ) .

Piot ( 2007 ) besides stressed the importance of utilizing this cricket event to inform immature people as he believed that they have ne’er known a universe that ‘s free from AIDS. This is in sync with an earlier declaration which pointed to the correlativity between athletics and immature people, observing that of the 40 million people populating with HIV around the universe, a 3rd of them are below age 20 five and they either autumn in the class of participants or witnesss ( IOC Factsheet, 2008 ) .

This Unite for Children, Unite Against Aids Campaign as proposed in the HIV/AIDS Caribbean promotional programme was publicized through public service proclamations and the erosion of ruddy and bluish threads by participants and functionaries from each squad during their first and last games ( Unicef, 2007 ) . The ruddy thread is symbolically used internationally to denote the consciousness of HIV/AIDS ( Avert, 2008 ) . Blue thread normally signifies attention, concern and support.

Another purpose of the CWC games was to make synergism among the Caribbean states. In position of this aim, Dehring ( 2007a ) pointed to its bequest in footings of it hammering permanent relationships among the nine Caribbean states. In fact, this unique undertaking could be the most of import enterprise within the Caribbean part that will beef up the Caribbean Community ( CARICOM ) in footings of the followers:

Rejuvenate the aims of the West Indies Federation which was established in 1958 with a intent of set uping political brotherhood and supplying cardinal planning for the development of its member provinces ( CARICOM Secretariat, 2008a ) .

Drive the CSME which is an incorporate development scheme intended to make one big market among member provinces so as to profit the people of the part. This enterprise will promote free motion of labor, capital, goods and services around the part and set up common trade policy and external duty among other aims ( CARICOM Secretariat, 2008b ) .

Further promote the constitution of the Caribbean Court of Justice ( CCJ ) which is a regional judicial tribunal tribunal that is proposed as more than a Court of last resort for the member provinces ( CARICOM Secretariat, 2008c ) .

International dealingss were besides expected to beef up, for illustration, the Indian partnerships in Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago were intended to ease a cultural connexion as many of the posterities from both states are from India. There are even programs to construct Indian Cultural Centres so as to prolong this civilization ( Caribbean Business Club, 2006a ) . The aid provided by the Republic of China in footings of the new bowl was non simply for increasing capacity and supplying employment but was besides deemed as a agency of constructing the China-Caribbean relationship and excite the growing of cricket in China ( Nation Newspaper, 2006 ) .

Proposed Economic Impact

Although 100,000 individuals were expected to see the Caribbean for the CWC games, the existent flow of money through the part ‘s economic systems was non known. Estimated gross from ticket gross revenues, selling, telecasting rights, grant and sponsorship bases at US $ 250 million and visitor disbursement on adjustment, transit, amusement, nutrient and drink and keepsake is approximated to be US $ 250 million ( Collis, 2006 ) .

The net income to ICC is estimated to be US $ 239 million of which US $ 1 million would be given to each member of the ICC. The remainder would be shared among associate members and besides to be used for the development of cricket among affiliate members ( Murgatroyd, 2007 ) .

It ‘s predicted that the West Indies Cricket Board ( WICB ) would hold made about US $ 20 million through telecasting rights, sponsorships and as hosts of the games. As agreed by the WICB and the territorial boards, 80 % of the net incomes will stay with the WICB and the staying 20 % will be shared among the six territorial boards, to help with their development programmes. The WICB is trusting to utilize the net incomes to supply direct returns to the host states. ( Jamaica Observer, 2007a )

Several theories of economic growing and development were proposed for this event. Holder ( 2003 ) alluded to Sports / Cricket-Tourism ; Marcelle ( 2004 ) suggested Cricket and Technology while the Jamaica Promotions Corporation ( JAMPRO ) so renamed the Jamaica Trade Invests ( JTI ) proposed Cricket and Partnership.

Holder ( 2003 ) believed that there is an economic by-product from athleticss. In his attempt to

explicate this benefit, he postulated that the Caribbean is poised for Sports Tourism which

is one of the fastest turning niche markets. He indicated that if the Caribbean is to be

competitory, it has to diversify its traditional touristry merchandise of Sun, sea and sand so as to

heighten the merchandise offerings and run into the altering consumer penchants. He besides

noted that the 2007 CWC games will supply the chance for the remainder of the universe to

see the beauty of this part in footings of its people and nutrient, among its other alone assets and this will lure them to return after the games, thereby increasing touristry reachings to the part. Likewise, Neirotti ( 2006 ) ( Professor of Sports, Event and Tourism Management at George Washington University School of Business ) urged the Caribbean to utilize CWC to advance Tourism.

At the Particular Caribbean Development Bank Discussion Forum, Marcelle ( 2004 ) proclaimed that although the Caribbean part is challenged by the many little and unfastened economic systems which are being impacted by the alterations in other societies, the part is to travel beyond this position by be aftering for the ICC CWC with a position of utilizing it for farther development.

Marcelle ( 2004 ) suggested that the yoke of cricket and engineering will let for greater efficiency and income coevals. She pointed to the usage of Information Communication Technology ( ICT ) in supplying goods and services to a possible market. She besides encouraged the part to guarantee both excellence on the pitch and in its usage of ICT to progress entrepreneurship through the production and gross revenues of memorabilia to include books, pictures, DVDs and digital archives, which could go a sustainable venture for publishing houses.

In support of the economic benefits that can be derived from the ICC CWC 2007, JAMPRO/ JTI besides forecasted selling, trade and investing chances for the Caribbean part. In relation to its general authorization in advancing and facilitating investing and export development, this bureau initiated the Caribbean Business Club ( CBC ) which was launched in April 2006. This construct stemmed from the 2005 Legacy Strategy which is intended to speed up trade and investing chances ensuing from the hosting of mega athleticss events such as the ICC CWC 2007 ( JAMPRO, 2006 ) .

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One of the major purposes of the CBC was to enable its members to profit from concern fiting services and networking chances in the international market. With this in head, JAMPRO/ JTI partnered with CricketWorld.com which was launched in 1996 and is perceived to be the figure one independent cricket web site in the universe, The purpose of this partnership was to increase the selling attempts of the CBC in states such as the UK, India, Australia and South Africa as these states are deemed non merely to hold a love for cricket but besides to hold strong economic systems ( JAMPRO, 2006 ) .

As a consequence of this partnership, representatives from the regional private sector, the Local Organizing Committees for CWC and other regional organic structures participated in a two twenty-four hours workshop to measure the benefits to be derived from this event. These benefits included new international concerns and employment chances. Both the operations of the CBC and the Caribbean Business Opportunity Service ( CBOS ) were analyzed. The aims of the CBOS were to place markets for goods and services for major undertakings and events in the part, promote trade and partnerships among regional and international concerns and set up high degree contacts with the top 100 companies across the part and the top 200 executives from targeted states outside the part.

The success of Business Clubs linked to the Sydney Olympic Games, the Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City and the Athens Olympic Games were besides examined. Feedback from the workshop showed that there was a demand for concerns to profit from the hosting of this mega event in the Caribbean and besides to link with cardinal international concern forces who will be in attending at the games ( JAMPRO, 2006 ) .

CWC 2007 was besides perceived by other stakeholders to be extremely good to the economic growing of the Caribbean. Whatley ( 2006 ) declared that it presented a great chance for concerns and the part to advance themselves globally in footings of investing, services and touristry. Bennett-Templer ( 2006 ) referred to the extended range of CricketWorld.com and its possible in enabling the CBC to market to new and emerging markets. Likewise, Lyn ( 2006 ) noted that it will supply an avenue for influential concern forces who are devouring cricketers to be able to blend concern with pleasance ( Jamaica Gleaner, 2006 ) .

The forming commission in the Caribbean besides had great outlooks. Gordon ( 2006 ) , ( so WICB President ) , postulated that the economic system of some Caribbean states is poised to profit by more than US $ 2 million from the CWC as there is an expected outgo of US $ 200 per twenty-four hours by each visitant in the countries of adjustment, travel, nutrient, amusement and keepsakes.

Similarly, Dehring ( 2007a ) promised that this World Cup would hold been the best of all time. He believed that there would be tonss of visitants passing a batch of money. In fact, he specifically noted that “ the CWC will sell Jamaica as it has ne’er been sold before ” . Gordon ( 2007 ) besides noted that the net incomes to be realized from this event would assist to cut down the debt load of the WICB. Rousseau ( 2007 ) , ( former president of the WICB ) besides cited that it would be good for the part ‘s tourer industry and economic system ( Sunday Gleaner, 2007b ) .

The economic impacts of the CWC in the Caribbean were besides debated. A debating session hosted by the CBC and the Mona School of Business mooted whether or non developing states benefit from hosting major events. Several panellists believed that that CWC can be good in the long term ; it can advance trade name Jamaica every bit good as provide economic linkages with the nutrient and drink and amusement sectors ( Caribbean Business Club, 2006b ) .

The Local Organizing Committee in both Barbados and St. Lucia had similar ideas. It was believed that Barbados will be branded as the ‘number one topographic point to see, unrecorded and invest ‘ ( Nation News, 2007 ) . The period during the games was besides expected to convey full hotel suites, shopping and other signifiers of visitant outgo in Barbados ( Barbados Democrats, 2007 )

It is estimated that there will be a demand for belongings in Barbados, either for rental or gross revenues ( Trinidad News Chronicles, 2007 ) . The executives in St. Lucia had besides promised that this would be the best Cricket World Cup ( Caribbean Net News, 2007 ) .

Small concern operators were besides expected to profit from this sporting activity. For

illustration, the Bed and Breakfast Programme in Jamaica was rejuvenated and expanded as

more than five 100 suites were made available for the games and the proprietors were

trained in countries of cordial reception by the Tourism Product Development Company ( TPDCo ) .

A list of these installations were posted on the Unique Jamaica website which was linked to

the CWC web site. ( Jamaica Gleaner, 2007a ) .

Antigua and Barbuda had a similar adjustment agreement called the Homestay Programme, which aimed at supplying visitants with a local cultural experience.

An expected spin off from this agreement is that individuals would return in the hereafter and

they would besides urge the finish to friends and households ( Caribbean Net News, 2006a ) .

Full tenancy rate for hotels were besides projected. In 2006, the Hilton hotels of the

Caribbean ( Barbados, Jamaica, St. Lucia and Trinidad and Tobago ) had e-marked

a considerable sum of their suites ( Haynes, 2006 ) . Likewise, two months prior the games, some hotels were describing an tenancy rate of 95 % and this index pointed to an expected full tenancy rate by the day of the month of the gap ceremonial ( Jamaica Gleaner, 2007b ) .

Several trade small towns were established in the Caribbean districts. In Jamaica, the ‘One Love Village ‘ was to be set up at the Cable and Wireless Golf Academy and the National Housing Trust ( NHT ) auto park in New Kingston for the period March 12 to 24. This country was expected to suit over 100 trade and nutrient sellers offering diverse Jamaican culinary art and trade severally ( Jamaica Information Service / JIS, 2007 ) .

The air hoses had besides anticipated an addition in flights. For case, Caribbean Airlines,

the Trinidadian air hose company had increased its figure of flights by 100 and

this resulted in an extra 2500 seats ( Caribbean Airlines News Articles, 2007 ) .

In add-on to all of the above projections, Scotiabank in Canada awaited economic enlargement and long term benefits for the part. This was as a consequence of an Economic Assessment ( 2007 ) conducted which provided more elaborate empirical informations sing CWC 2007 games in the Caribbean part. The appraisal noted the undermentioned indexs as economic benefits to be realized:

Employment chances for more than 10,000 individuals.

Foreign Direct Investments ( FDI ) valuing US $ 500 – 700 million.

Increased visitant disbursement due to an estimated 100,000 event

visitants.

Positive long term non-traditional tourer markets to include India

( Scotia Economic Reports, 2007 )

In contrast to the above prognosiss, the Scotia Economics Assessment besides anticipated that the economic growing rate of the Caribbean part in 2007 will be lower than that of 2006 due to the cost of fixing for the event. A projection of 5.5 per cent in 2007 was made, in comparing with the more than 8 per cent growing rate in 2006. The costs of readying included resorts and installation building ; about US $ 500 million was expended for the upgrading of airdromes, roads, power coevals and ICT ; about US $ 300 million on bowl development and another $ 40 million on impermanent installations. Scotia Economics besides noted that the extra demand for goods and services may ensue in the addition in monetary values for transit, adjustments, nutrient and other services ( Scotia Economic Reports, 2007 )

The appraisal was, nevertheless, able to place a balance of both impacts, as it was suggested that the Caribbean currencies can stay comparatively stable over the spring of 2007 due to strong foreign currency influxs and an encouraging macroeconomic status and this will equilibrate the cost of imports for fixing for the games ( Scotia Economic Reports, 2007 )

The Scotia Economic Reports ( 2007 ) besides projected the economic impact of CWC 2007 on specific Caribbean districts, viz. Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago and Barbados. See Appendix D.

Consequences

It has been about three old ages since the theatrical production of CWC 2007 and many individuals had anticipated a honoring event that would lend vastly to the growing and development of the hosting Caribbean districts. However, several factors challenged its success. These include:

High entryway monetary values ( US $ 25- $ 90 )

Poor public presentation of several squads

Death of Bob Wolmer ( Pakistan ‘s Coach ) in Jamaica

High tenancy rates

Low hotel tenancy ( Barbados Democrats ( 2007 )

One of the major challenges experienced in this research was the inaccessibility of current informations refering the impact of hosting ICC CWC 2007 in the Caribbean. Nonetheless the undermentioned impacts were ascertained:

Actual Social Impacts

The CWC 2007 games have encouraged communicating, coordination and cooperation from the people and authoritiess of the Caribbean. Dehring ( 2007b ) reported that be aftering for the ICC CWC 2007 games encouraged a spirit of togetherness and integrity within the Caribbean in footings of cooperation and acquiring things done in a timely mode.

The UNICEF- sponsored AIDS undertakings which facilitated the visit of many of the cricketers and ICC functionaries to run into affected kids in St. Kitts, St. Lucia, Trinidad and Tobago, Antigua and Barbuda, Jamaica, Guyana and Barbados have impacted the lives of both kids and grownups. This besides motivated the media to give much attending to the impact of HIV and AIDS ( McClean-Trotman & A ; Dabney 2007 ) .

AIDS consciousness was non merely communicated via the electronic media but besides in originative ways as was done in Grenada where dance and poesy were performed by kids and immature people and in St. Lucia where a carnival set comprising of 100s of kids wore shirts with the message ‘HIV Prevention Begins with You ‘ ( Unicef, 2007 ) .

The Indian Government ‘s aid is viewed as supplying multiple benefits. Not merely

was substructure improved and developed and economic partnership established but the

local workers were exposed to proficient preparation which they can utilize to market themselves.

Actual Economic Impacts

The low figure of visitants in the Caribbean was let downing and this impacted some facets of the program. For case, after one hebdomad, the ‘One Love Village ‘ established in New Kingston, Jamaica was closed down as no 1 was traveling at that place to shop or watch the games ( Jamaica Observer, 2007b ) .

However, harmonizing to an audited study prepared by KPMG for the ICC CWC 2007 Inc. , the tourneies held in the Caribbean had an overall net net income of US $ 53.9 million and this sum is believed to be the highest in the history of CWC ( Caribbean Press Releases, 2008 ) . The sufficiency of this sum now becomes a cardinal factor to see as the purpose was to portion the expected US $ 239 million among members, associates and affiliates of the ICC.

Of the net excess, US $ 31.4 million was ascertained from the audited ticket gross revenues ; once more perceived to be the highest of all time recorded in the history of CWC ( Caribbean Press Releases, 2008 ) , when compared to the US $ 22 million realized in England in 1999 and the US9.7million achieved in South Africa in 2003 ( WICB, 2007 ) . This gross from ticket gross revenues ( 672, 000 tickets ) is an imperative result to analyze, as the entryway fee of about US $ 90 was criticized as being really expensive, thereby know aparting against the mean Caribbean national from go toing. Further analysis of this existent sum in relation to the expected US $ 250 million which was quoted before as expected gross from ticket gross revenues, selling, Television rights, commercials and sponsorship shows that ticket gross revenues bases at 12.56 % of the budgeted income. In order to do a more accurate and marked appraisal of the worth of the ticket gross revenues in comparing to the other variables, their several income would be required.

Of the entire excess earned from CWC 2007, the Local Organizing Committees were paid US $ 29.3 million on behalf of the Caribbean Governments to be shared among hosting states ( Caribbean Press Releases, 2008 ) . The other cardinal inquiry to inquire is ; can this sum cover the cost associated with fixing for the games?

The staying US $ 24.6 million was paid to the West Indies Cricket Board ( WICB ) of which 25 % will be given to the territorial cricket boards ( Caribbean Press Releases, 2008 ) . Trinidad and Tobago has received US $ 1.05 million from the WICB as their portion of the returns ( Caribbean Media Corporation, 2008 ) .

Some districts were disgruntled about the payment received. Both Barbados and Guyana challenged the audited studies on the ticket gross revenues. At the clip of this research, the Guyanese Government was still owed about US $ 1 million dollar as the amount of ticket gross revenues in that district was US $ 2.372 million and merely US $ 1.3 million was paid. Guyana is besides claiming US $ 825,000 for services provided to the WICB and WICB in bend is claiming US $ 467,000 from Guyana for services provided during the tourney ( Stabroek News, 2008 ) .

Despite this pending legal issue, the WICB was satisfied with the consequences of CWC 2007 and was appreciative of the success of the tourney. Gordon ( 2008 p.1 ) { Chairman of CWC } in the Caribbean Press Releases alluded that,

“ We have received an unqualified audit study which shows a really respectful fiscal public presentation and the care of fiscal unity in our operations. We have completed our undertaking and look frontward to the bequest of our attempts. ”

In footings of Jamaica, the authorities invested over US100 million dollars ( J $ 9 billion ) in this event ; US $ 46 million on the Reconstruction of Sabina Park, US $ 35 million on the building of the Greenfield Trelawny Stadium and US $ 20 million on “ off the pitch ” disbursals. Despite this high degree of investing, the Jamaica Cricket 2007 Organizing Committee sought cabinet ‘s blessing in composing off loans of J $ 375 million which was secured for administrative intents. The authorities was advised by the senate to name a committee of question to find whether or non hosting the ICC CWC 2007 games was good to Jamaica ( Order of Business of the Senate of Jamaica, 2009 ) .

Long -Term Benefits

Several long term benefits that will promote economic growing are being proposed. These include the followers:

Investing Opportunities

The JTI stated that Jamaica is now positioned to capitalise on the benefits of hosting the CWC ( Sunday Gleaner, 2007b ) . With the jutting gross of US $ 9 million and a cost of US $ 105 million ( J $ 7 billion ) , the best option is to depend on long term chances.

It is believed that this event will let Jamaica to pull more than US $ 400 million in FDI within the following five old ages, that is, by the twelvemonth 2012, in the countries of agribusiness, touristry, information engineering and cinematography. In fact, it was besides reported that non-traditional markets have already been tapped into, for illustration India and Canada ( Sunday Gleaner, 2007b ) .

India has an involvement in puting in the ICT, java production and movie sectors in Jamaica. The ICT investing will be of a value of US $ 120 million. It was noted that the java production company will be established in Mavis Bank, St. Andrew ( Sunday Gleaner, 2007b ) .

Harmonizing to the JTI, a Canadian bee-keeping company is believing of traveling its operations to Jamaica and there are 12 abroad companies that are in dialogues with Jamaica manufacturers. In add-on, one Jamaican packaging company is negociating to supply the United States ‘ market with its merchandises and nine other companies have already shipped off goods to abroad markets. On the contrary, sectors such as athleticss touristry and amusement are yet to be explored ( Sunday Gleaner, 2007b ) .

Income Generation for Small Businesss

It was noted that the ICC CWC did non alter the lives of many who had prepared for this promising event. In fact, some individuals were left in debt, as they had borrowed money to put in this venture and sellers had reported a decrease in gross revenues as other individuals ventured into the same concern with the outlook of gaining from the event. It was perceived that this esteemed event was non for the ‘small adult male ‘ ( Sunday Gleaner, 2007a ) .

Tourism

To day of the month, the ICC CWC seems to hold had small or no impact on touristry in the Caribbean. In fact, the Jamaica Tourist Board statistics showed a lessening in stop-over visitant reaching for the months of March and April 2007 to that state. See Appendix E. Although there was an addition in the figure of visitants from states involved in the event, it was still non certain if these individuals came for the CWC ( Sunday Gleaner, 2007a ) . See Appendix F.

Even though the 2006-2007 Barbados Tourism season was really successful, it can non be linked wholly to CWC as the World Golf Championship was besides held at that place in December 2006 ( totallybarbados.com, 2007 )

Economic Diversification

The nine Caribbean states had invested to a great extent in substructure and superstructure developments. Some new bowl were built and bing 1s were renovated ( Nation News Paper, 2006 ) . Although this cost could hold exceeded US $ 300 million, it is believed that the chances from making so will be much greater ( Gordon, 2006 ) . See Appendix F for Cricket Playing Facilities.

All nine Caribbean districts have benefited from improved substructure and sporting installations which propelled the building sector, doing it the chief driver of economic growing. This was apparent particularly in the Eastern Caribbean States such as St.Vincent and the Grenadines, St. Kitts and Grenada ( Caribbean Development Bank, 2006 ) .

It is envisaged that the existent installations will go on to promote economic growing.

The bowl are proposed to be utile locales for local events and they can besides be marketed for international games. Noel ( 2008 ) has proposed that the Queen ‘s Park in Grenada be used as a locale to ease non merely Sports Tourism but besides Faith Tourism where spiritual groups can carry on their activities. This could supply sustainable income for the installation from individuals who had visited the island for CWC 2007.

Airports were besides renovated. In the instance of Antigua and Barbuda they had received

aid from the Venezuelan Government in the amount of US $ 7.5M to upgrade the VC Bird International Airport ( Caribbean Net News, 2006b ) .

St. Lucia is non to be left out of this readying for the CWC games. Among its infrastructural development were the Beausejour Cricket Ground, the Beauejour route web and exigency medical responses ( Barbados Advocate, 2007 ) . Traffic visible radiations were besides implemented in Guyana.

Despite all the troubles, the ICC CWC 2007 is professed to supply long-run benefits to the Caribbean. Arthur ( 2007 ) noted that although it costs a batch to host the games, the money was good exhausted and the benefits will be reaped in due class. He besides mentioned that the cricket ellipse in Barbados could non hold made back the money in this individual event as it was an tremendous capital spending.

Similarly, the Local Organizing Committee in Jamaica predicted that Jamaica will besides profit in the long-run. Visitor reachings in Kingston are expected to increase from 17 % in 2006 to 35 % by 2009 ( Trinidad News Chronicle, 2007 ) .

The patrons for the event were besides optimistic about the long term benefits to be realized. Scotia Bank which sponsored the Kiddy Cricket across the Caribbean reported success although a quantitative analysis was non provided. Pepsi which sponsored the Television Jamaica ( TVJ ) CWC Coverage in Jamaica and besides raised financess via a route show for the SOS Children ‘s Village noted that the sponsorship was “ good worth the attempt ” . Cable and Wireless thought it was excessively early to determine the benefits ( Jamaica Observer, 2007b ) .

Although there are expected benefits to be gained, the CWC 2007 games were perceived by others as a high cost for which the chance cost may non be able to replace. An appraisal by the International Monetary Fund ( IMF ) revealed that readyings for the CWC have stimulated economic activity in the Caribbean part but at a high cost. The study stated that the edifice of and renovating of bowl and outgo on other substructure has resulted in a debt in surplus of 100 % of GDP at the terminal of 2006 in the host states. The IMF pointed out that the high revenue enhancement grant given to the private sector building to increase touristry capacity will gnaw the revenue enhancement base and advised that the part is non to anticipate a high addition from this event ( Caribbean Comment WordPress, 2007 ) .

The IMF was, nevertheless, non certain about the long term impact. It referred to similar events such as the FIFA World Cup held in Korea / Japan in 2002 and the CWC held in South Africa in 2003, both of which realized a little net positive consequence. The IMF was, however, dubious as to the economic benefits to be had from CWC 2007. Several factors such as the multiple locales across the part and the clip of the games which happened to be during the peak winter tourer season characterized by high tenancy rates were cited as major hindrances to the economic benefits. It is believed that if the part is to profit from CWC2007, it has to go on its touristry selling attempts and turn to the macro-economic issues such as the high degrees of public debt ( Caribbean Comment WordPress, 2007 ) .

Methodology

The relevant information for this chapter was accessed through desktop research. This involved the reappraisal of published resources, addresss / presentations and statistical informations. Extra information was garnered from text editions, newspaper and assorted Internet web sites.

The Way Forward

Sporting events are major subscribers to the economic growing and development of the host state. However, the Caribbean should hold done a thorough appraisal so as to maximise its benefits. The determination to host any clean event should be based on empirical informations and non premises.

The undermentioned schemes are suggested for the planning and executing of future featuring events within the Caribbean:

Conduct a thorough cost/benefit analysis to measure both the quantitative and qualitative deductions of hosting a clean event.

Make a macro-environmental appraisal of the possible impacts of the featuring event on the economic ; socio-cultural ; political ; technological ; and the physical and natural

environments to guarantee sustainable usage of resources and permanent and significant benefits.

Include the Caribbean occupants in the mark market and maintain the monetary value at an low-cost rate by transporting out proper and sound dialogues with the Client.

Conduct careful dialogues on all other variables with the Client so as to recognize full benefit for each hosting district and the part as a whole.

Develop a executable selling program for the bowl and other installations so that they can be marketed internationally.

Use the ICC CWC 2007 event as a benchmark for other featuring events.

Establish an bureau for Sports Management in the Caribbean, with offices in the districts which will ease communicating and set up synergism between the athletics and touristry sectors ; set criterions in footings of command and negotiating patterns and procedures ; behavior research both locally, regionally and internationally ; guarantee the high quality bringing of athleticss event direction services ; make investing chances for all sectors ( public and private ) and set up marks for the hereafter development of the industry.

Develop an Economic Assessment Model similar to the STEAM used in Canada. Initially it may be expensive and clip devouring but the research has shown that in the long term it is a dependable instrument used to mensurate the likely success of a clean event.

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