“It wholly started as a rumour. so we found out we are covering with a disease. Then we realized that it was an epidemic. And now we have accepted it as a tragedy” . Chief Epidemiologist in Kampala Uganda. History of HIV
Human Immunodeficiency Virus ( HIV ) is the virus that causes the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome ( AIDS ) . There is grounds that AIDS originated in Africa. A 10 twelvemonth survey completed in 2005 found a strain of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus ( SIV ) in Pan troglodytess in South East Cameroon. A complex computing machine theoretical account of the development of HIV1 has suggested that first transportation of SIV to worlds occurred around 1930`s and HIV 2 transferred from monkeys in Guinea Bissau in the 1940’s. Statisticss
Harmonizing to estimated informations of UNAIDS 2008. in 2007 about 30. 8million grownups and 2million kids were populating with HIV. 2. 7 million people became septic with HIV. and 2 million died of AIDS. Sub Saharan Africa is more to a great extent affected by HIV and AIDS than any other part in the universe. In 2007. about 22million were populating with HIV. 1. 9million freshly infected. 1. 5million deceases and 12million kids orphaned by AIDS. In Zimbabwe with a population of 12. 311. 143 in 2007. 1. 2million were populating with HIV. 15. 3 % were grownups ( 15-49yrs ) . 57 % were adult females. 120. 000 were kids with HIV ( 0-15yrs ) . and 140000 estimated deceases. Difference between remedy and intervention
There are ongoing clinical tests to happen the remedy for AIDS. at the minute we can merely command AIDS patterned advance but non bring around it. Remedy means that after medical intervention the patient no longer has the peculiar disease any longer. Treatment aid control. lessen or even extinguish the symptoms of a disease. Antiretroviral drugs ( ARVs ) are illustrations of interventions. they control and suppress the disease but do non bring around. and they therefore better the quality of life of an person. Common ARVs include: Zidovudine. Stavudine Lamivudine. Nevirapine. Tenofovir. Efavirenz. Indinavir and Norvir. Transmission of HIV
There are assorted ways of HIV transmittal which include sexual transmittal which can either be heterosexual or homosexual through septic secernments. Besides blood transfusion can convey HIV if the blood is infected. The other methods of transmittal include needle stick. mucosal splash with septic organic structure fluids and besides in endovenous drug users every bit good as perpendicular transmittal from female parent to child in the uterus. at birth or during suckling. AIDS Vaccine
HIV infects a assortment of cells of the immune system most significantly the CD4 T assistant lymphocytes. Inside the cells RNA of the HIV is converted to DNA by the enzyme called rearward RNA polymerase. This Deoxyribonucleic acid becomes portion of the cells genome ensuing in viral proteins being formed that leads to the generation of the virus. In the procedure other CD4 cells become memory cells. The virus can besides infect macrophages which are killer cells. An AIDS vaccinum is a substance that is introduced into the organic structure to forestall infection HIV or to command the AIDS disease. The AIDS vaccinum primes the organic structure and makes it prepared to support itself against the HIV virus by making an immune response. It can either be a preventive. curative or intervention vaccinum. A preventive vaccinum protects an person from infection or disease. The vaccinum introduces a little piece or a nonharmful signifier of HIV into the organic structure. The immune system in the organic structure mounts an immune response to the HIV virus by doing antibodies. and killer cells or even both.
The immune system has memory B cells ( bring forthing antibodies ) and memory T cells ( assisting in the production of antibodies and killer cells ) . Following clip when the existent HIV is encountered by the organic structure the immune system remembers and saddle horses a immune response which is much larger and quicker than it would hold if the individual had ne’er received the vaccinum. This is called immune memory. A curative or intervention vaccinum starts an immune response after a individual has been infected with HIV provided he has been vaccinated before and has immune memory. It has been hard to happen an AIDS vaccinum because HIV cloaks itself in transcripts of human molecules after occupying a human host. this becomes hard for the vaccinum to develop the body`s immune system to acknowledge and attach the HIV cells. The virus mutates and is able to get away the immune system response. During clinical tests the vaccinum has left people more vulnerable to HIV infection and it’s now hard to happen campaigners to prove the HIV vaccinums. It is besides hard to develop a strong and thorough antibody response with a vaccinum that would let the immune system to destruct the AIDS because possibility of a partial vaccinum is non a good thought. Ways to battle the spread and consequence of HIV/AIDS
Prevention of female parent to child transmittal ( PMTCT ) : In Zimbabwe 17000 kids are infected every twelvemonth. The bulk are through female parent to child transmittal. Prevention starts from adult females of kid bearing age so gestation. If the female parent was non on ARVs. she starts on Retrovir from 28 to 34 hebdomads gestation till labour so Viramune during labor. The babe takes Viramune within 72 hours of bringing and Retrovir for 7days. On bringing cesarean subdivision is better than normal vertex bringing. Promote mother non to breast provender. if she can’t afford expression so she has to entirely suckle for 6months. In Zimbabwe usage of Viramune has raised from 4 % in 2006 to 29 % in 2007. Education: Peoples should be taught about HIV/AIDS. This can be through telecasting. play. wireless. community groups and as a topic in schools. In Zimbabwean schools kids from 8years are taught about HIV/AIDS and it has been suggested that there should be an scrutiny on the topic. ARVs: There are authorities sponsored ARV programmes for those who qualify that is CD4 count less than 350. WHO clinical phase 3 or 4 and viral burden more than 30 000 transcripts.
This has been hard in Zimbabwe because of the current economic crisis. Condom usage: Condoms should be easy accessible and twosomes should utilize rubbers systematically and on a regular basis. Condom usage has increased in Zimbabwe and it has the highest rate of female rubber usage in Africa Positive Behaviour alteration: Promote the young person to abstain from sex and detain sexual introduction and twosomes to be faithful to one sexual spouse. Deter polygamy and excessively broad a coevals spread between twosomes. Women authorization: The big economic spread between adult male and adult females has resulted in some adult females holding really small or no say in sexual relationships. Married work forces refuse to utilize rubbers and their married womans agree because of fright of bullying. Thus adult females should be empowered to hold a base. Voluntary guidance and testing ( VCT ) : Each infirmary in Zimbabwe has at least one VCT Centre and they have increased from 292 in 2004 to 430 in 2005 with every wellness territory incorporating at least one. In 2007 VCT was changed to provider initiated testing. Whenever a individual visited a health care installation. HIV proving was provided this resulted in many people being tested cognizing their position. Decision
The manner forward is that each and every person should take portion in battling the infection and spread of HIV/AIDS in the universe. get downing from place.
1. UNAIDS 2008 Report on the planetary AIDS epidemic
2. UNFPA web site. Condom Programing
3. Kaisernetwork. org ( September 2005 ) . ‘US has increased planetary rubber distribution in recent old ages. aiming largely bad groups’ 4. UNAIDS. ‘2007 AIDS Epidemic Update’
5. UNAIDS/UNICEF/WHO. ‘Children and AIDS: Second stocktaking report’ . April 2008. 6. World Wide Web. cdcnpin. org/scripts/display/Maltdisplay. asp
7. World Wide Web. vaccinums. com/english/Africa/2007/05/18
8. hypertext transfer protocol: //webstudies. Sun. Ac. za