Which of the following descriptions accurately describes Boyle’s law?
The pressure of gas in your lungs is inversely proportional to the volume in your lungs.
Which muscles, when contracted, would increase the volume of air in the thoracic cavity?
diaphragm and external intercostals
Which pressure is the result of the natural tendency of the lungs to decrease their size (because of elasticity) and the opposing tendency of the thoracic wall to pull outward and enlarge the lungs?
intrapleural pressure
During an allergic reaction, which of the following would aid respiration?
If the transpulmonary pressure equals zero, what will happen to the lung?
lungs will collapse
What area in the brain sets the respiratory rhythm?
ventral respiratory group (VRG)
Inspiratory neurons send information to the diaphragm via what nerve?
What directly stimulates the central chemoreceptors, thus increasing respiration?
H+ Hydrogen ions
As a result of hyperventilation, what will happen to the partial pressures of CO2 (pCO2) and pH?
decreased pCO2 and increased pH
Which receptors inhibit inspiration during hyperinflation of the lungs?
pulmonary stretch receptors
What stimulates increased respiration at the beginning of exercise?
sensory input from receptors in joints, neural input from the motor cortex, and other factors
A homeostatic control mechanism controls respiration. What acts as the effector(s) in this system?
respiratory muscles
Which of the following processes are unique to the respiratory system?
pulmonary ventilation and external respiration
Which parts of the respiratory system function as the main sites of gas exchange?
What is the driving force behind pulmonary ventilation?
volume changes of the thoracic cavity
Which of the following is NOT a physical factor that influences pulmonary ventilation?
partial pressure of oxygen in the air
What is the amount of air that can be exhaled with the greatest possible exhalation after the deepest inhalation called?
vital capacity
What is ventilation-perfusion coupling?
Matching the amount of gas reaching the alveoli to the blood flow in pulmonary capillaries
Which of the following is the primary factor in oxygen attachment to, or release from, hemoglobin?
partial pressure of oxygen
What is the primary form in which carbon dioxide is carried in blood?
as a bicarbonate ion in the plasma
What determines the respiratory rhythm in the body?
medullary respiratory centers
What is the most powerful respiratory stimulant in a healthy person?
blood carbon-dioxide level

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