Figure 1. Camera trap exposure of the melanistic Grey Wolf single and his mate recorded in April 2013 in the Marmaris part.

As a consequence of wolf ablation by worlds, the distribution of the Grey Wolf (Canis lupus) critically declined during the last century and many populations are about nonextant in Western Europe ( Boitani, 1995 ) and North America ( Mech, 1970 ) . In Europe, they are distributed from sea degree up to over 2000 meters. In cardinal and southern countries, human force per unit area has forced them to withdraw to cragged countries above 600 meters ( Sulkava & A ; Pulliainen, 1999 ) . In Turkey, the happening is restricted to parts where human effects are at a lower limit. The scope in Turkey has reduced over the last 50 old ages as a consequence of extinction attempts and the indirect effects of habitat atomization. The population size is estimated to be about 5,000–7,000 persons and is presently traveling through a worsening stage ( Salvatori & A ; Linnell, 2005 ) . Regional extinctions have occurred in peculiar along the whole Lowlandss of the Mediterranean and Aegean parts due to poisoning by farm animal proprietors and runing during the last half century ( Salvatori & A ; Linnell, 2005 ; Albayrak, 2011 ; M. KantarlA± , pers. comm. , 15 September 2013 ) . Wolfs can merely last in home grounds with topological and anthropogenetic barriers ( Albayrak, 2011 ) . Although, like other big carnivores, it is a sensitive index of ecosystem unity ( A°lemin & A ; Gurkan, 2010 ) , merely a few surveies have been conducted straight on wolves in Turkey ( Can, 2001 ; BuzbaAY , 2002 ; Can & A ; Togan, 2009 ; Erturk, 2010 ; Albayrak, 2011 ) . Harmonizing to these surveies Grey Wolves inhabit undisturbed steppes, forestlands and other countries where they find equal quarries such as Wild Boar (Sus scrofaLinnaeus, 1758 ) , Red Deer (Cervus elaphusLinnaeus, 1758 ) , Roe Deer (Capreolus Capreolus( Linnaeus, 1758 ) ) , Brown Hare (Lepus eurapaeusAthenas, 1788 ) and farm animal. Zoological and ecological informations on the presence and population position of Grey Wolves can be obtained utilizing several direct and indirect methods. One of the most popular and utile tools for these researches is the camera pin downing method as an indirect method, which is used in this survey.

The survey was carried out in Turkish Red PinePinus brutiaforests at different post-fire sequence regeneration phases in the Marmaris territory of MuAYla state ( 36°82’N, 28°19’E ) . These forests burned several times in 1974, 1992, 1996 and 1997. As a consequence of these fires the site is interspersed with countries of high bush flora with evergreen works species ( Maquis ) and low bush flora ( phrygana ) preponderantly covered byPhillyrea latifolia, Quercus infectoria, Cistus salviifolius, C. degree Celsiusreticus, Smilax aspera, Ericaspp. , Thymusspp. , Genista acanthoclada( KaynaAY & A ; Gurkan, 2008 ; A°lemin & A ; Gurkan, 2010 ) . The height ranges between sea degree and 350 m a.s.l. There are no human activities such as agribusiness or farm animal. The lone human effects are yachting along the Bay of Gokova and sylviculture patterns carried out by the Ministry of Forestry. There are populations of ferine Equus caballuss and donkeys, which were released into the wild by old occupant villagers before they left their small towns. Feral Canis familiariss were ne’er encountered in this survey.

The mammal study was conducted between April and July 2013 by utilizing 7 Bushnell camera traps ( Bushnell, Trophy Cam, Kansas, USA ) . The cameras were placed about 1.5–2 kilometers apart to maximise the country that was covered, a distance similar to that in assorted other surveies ( A°lemin & A ; Gurkan, 2010 ; Akbaba & A ; AyaAY , 2012 ) . Wholly, there were 384 camera trap yearss at 7 Stationss.

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During our study, we recorded nine wild mammal species and two ferine mammal species ( Table 1 ) . Wholly, four Grey Wolf images were obtained from one camera trap station located at an height of 215 m a.s.l. All these records belong to one brace. The first records of this brace were taken at midnight ( between 00.36 and 00.40 ) on 29 April, 2013 ; the 2nd records of the same brace were taken once more at midnight ( 23.58 ) , merely one hebdomad subsequently on 4 May, 2013. In add-on to the Grey Wolves, I recorded three more carnivore species at the same camera trap station, i.e. Caracal (Caracal desert lynx) , Brown Bear (Ursus arctos) and Badger (Meles Meless) .

Table 1. Entire figure of events in 384 camera trap yearss and the figure of events per 100 camera trap yearss for each mammal species in the survey country.

Speciess

Entire no. of events

Events per 100 camera trap yearss

Wild Boar (Sus scrofa)

26

7.0

Caracal (Caracal desert lynx)

16

4.0

Marten (Martes foina)

9

2.3

Grey Wolf (Canis lupus)

4

1.0

Badger (Meles Meless)

3

0.7

Brown Bear (Ursus arctos)

3

0.7

European Hare (Lepus europaeus)

3

0.7

Eurasiatic Otter( Lutra Lutra)

1

0.26

Caucasic Squirrel (Sciurus anomalus)

14

3.6

Feral Equus caballus and Donkey

79

20.5

Feral Cat

8

2.08

The male wolf is a melanistic person ( Figure 1 ) , while the female is normal in coloring material. The presence of both the black and the normal-coloured person in several of the infrared shootings allows a good comparing between the fur coloring material to be made ( Figure 1 ) . The melanistic Grey Wolf has a healthy visual aspect and was seemingly the leader of the brace.

The melanistic Grey Wolf is the first record of a melanistic person of this species in Turkey. The record is besides the first record of a Grey Wolf in MuAYla Province, at its lowest height in Turkey. Soyumert et Al. ( 2010 ) conducted a camera trap based study at precisely the same location from November 2005 to August 2006. During this study, despite 197 camera trap yearss of attempt in the same home ground, no Grey Wolf, Caracal, Brown Bear or Badger exposures were captured. This could bespeak highly low densenesss of Grey Wolf and other carnivores in the country. Our survey one time once more confirms the importance of intensive long-run studies for wildlife researches.

Turan ( 1984 ) noted that Grey Wolves are settling in Turkey in cragged countries above 800 m a.s.l. in summer, but descend to 400 m a.s.l. in winter. Other surveies conducted in Turkey on Grey Wolves and other carnivores confirm this ( Can, 2001 ; Erturk, 2010 ) . This may be the consequence of human persecution which has put force per unit area on wolves to settle in cragged countries ( Massolo & A ; Meriggi, 1998 ; Sulkava & A ; Pulliainen, 1999 ) . Our records ( 215 m a.s.l. ) are the first distribution records for this species from such a low height. As the handiness of quarry and the deficiency of human perturbation are the major parametric quantities set uping the happening of the Grey Wolf ( Christopher et al. , 2003 ; Erturk, 2010 ) , the survey country provides good stipulations: The densenesss of wild ferine Equus caballuss, wild donkeys and wild Sus scrofas are really high in the country ( Table 1 ) and none of the records during 384 camera trap yearss were of worlds, farm animal or ferine Canis familiariss. Although the country is near to tourist Centres such as Marmaris, it is really stray from human perturbation and ferine Equus caballuss and donkeys are good quarry points for the wolves. Under such conditions Grey Wolfs could last at such low heights.

Melanistic Grey Wolfs are well-known peculiarly in North America, but melanosis is highly rare or absent in the bulk of the European and Asiatic populations except in the Italian population ( Heptner & A ; Naumov, 1998 ; Greco, 2009 ) . Black phenotypes have ne’er been reported from Turkey earlier. There is, for case, no record of a melanistic wolf among the 1200 stock list records ( get downing in 2003 ) compiled by the General Directorate of Nature Protection and National Parks ( M. KantarlA± , pers. comm. , 15 September 2013 ) . Besides none of the 36 photographic records of Grey Wolves uploaded to the national mammal describing website TRAMEM ( www.tramem.org ) was melanistic.

Mutants in themelanocortin 1 receptor cistron( Mc1r ) consequence in pigment assortment in natural populations of many mammals ( Anderson et al. , 2009 ) . As found in North American wolves ( Anderson et al. , 2009 ) , European research workers reported that melanosis in the Italian population is caused by a late discovered melanocortin tract constituent, the K venue, in which a beta-defence protein acts as an alternate ligand for the Mc1r ( Greco, 2009 ) . Anderson et Al. ( 2009 ) pointed out that the black coat cistron shows grounds of positive choice in forest wolves. Contrary to the North American survey, Greco ( 2009 ) stated that the black coloring material could non be advantageous for specific habitat choice in Italy because black persons are reported from dry countries near sea degree to mountain woods. Our consequences back up this survey, with low height records of a melanistic Grey Wolf from Turkey.

There are two possible accounts for melanosis in canines: it can either be the consequence of hybridization with melanistic domestic Canis familiaris, or the happening of a black coat arising from a natural combination of wolf allelomorphs in coat coloring material finding cistrons ( Anderson et al. , 2009 ; Greco, 2009 ; Caniglia et al. , 2013 ) . I believe that the blackcoated Grey Wolf observed in the Marmaris part is a genetically pure person because no domestic or ferine Canis familiariss were found in the country. During a study in the DatcaBozburun Peninsula which is the next country of the Marmaris part, we besides did non obtain ferine Canis familiaris records during 6863 camera trap yearss ( A°lemin & A ; Gurkan, 2010 ) . Grey Wolves may go 50 kilometers in a twenty-four hours ( Erturk, 2010 ; Mech, 1992 ; Mech & A ; Boitani, 2003 ) . It can non be ruled out that melanistic persons or melanistic cistrons could come from populations in Inner Anatolia where there is some grounds for copulating between ferine Canis familiariss and Grey Wolves ( H. A° . Yolcu, pers. comm. , 25 September 2013 ) . However, I regard this as improbable due to the extremely counter behavior of ferine Canis familiariss towards Grey Wolves throughout Western Anatolia. Familial analyses would be necessary for a concluding appraisal.

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