There are four chief blood groups. A, B, AB and O. Each single blood group has its ain matching set of sugar based antigens that are embedded on the ruddy blood cell surface. For illustration, A antigens are on the ruddy blood cell plasma membrane of blood group A. B antigens are on blood group B ruddy cells, A and B antigens are on blood group AB and there are neither A nor B antigens on blood group O red cells. Within this “ABO system” ( Torrance, 2002, p. 57 ) there comes a set of antibodies. Consequentially, people that have A antigens on their ruddy blood cells will non develop any anti A antibodies but will be B antibody bearers. B antigen will be A antibody bearers, AB antigens will hold neither A nor B antibodies and eventually O will be both A and B antibody bearers. Alongside these four blood-antigen types about 85 % of Caucasic people carry a farther protein based antigen on their ruddy blood cells called antigen D. This is rhesus positive ( Rh+ ) . If a individual has no antigen D so they are rhesus negative ( Rh- ) . So if a individual has antigen A and D so will be A+ or instead if antigen A with no D they are A- . 208

Undertaking 1: B ) Which groups are compatible and explain why.

For transfusion, blood receivers need to be compatible with the blood giver otherwise there will be an antigen-antibody struggle. The antigens of a mismatched donor’s blood will adhere with the recipient’s built-in plasma antibodies doing “agglutination” ( Aaronson and Ward, 2007, p. 26 ) . This immune reaction attracts receiver antibodies to keep onto donor antigens making a ruddy blood cell constellating. AB blood receivers can safely have A, B and AB blood because they do non hold anti A or B antibodies. O blood donators can safely give to all ABO combinations because they don’t have any ruddy cell surface antigens ( Fig. 1 ) . 93

Recipient

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Figure 1.

Undertaking 2: Explain the construction of the bosom.

The bosom is situated behind the chest bone with a prejudice towards the left side of the ribcage. The pericardium is a dual superimposed covering that is unstable filled ; protecting and keeping the bosom. Traveling inwards from the external pericardium there is a bed of mesothelial cells called the visceral pericardium. Further in is the myocardium ; a alone nonvoluntary musculus commanding contraction of the bosom Chamberss. This hempen musculus makes up the walls of the atria, the ventricles and the interventricular septum. The endocardium is an interior bed of endothelial cells that to the full lines all of the heart’s Chamberss every bit good as the vass and the valves. Annulus hempen is a connective tissue web for musculus fond regard and structural support for the heart’s Chamberss. The ventricles narrow towards their top subdivision to funnel blood through their several semilunar valves. If viewed from above the right ventricle is semilunar in form while the left ventricle is about round. The tricuspid is a “three-cusped” ( Dykes and Watson, 2007, p. 66 ) valve associating the right atrium and ventricle. The premolar is a two-cusped linking valve on the left side. Chordae tendineae and papillose musculuss give the valves construction. The auriculoventricular valves are sealed in their inactive province but will let go of blood into either ventricle when the atria are full. When blood fills either atrium it will set force per unit area on the auriculoventricular valves coercing them to open. Once the ventricles are filled and force per unit area is greater than that of the atria the auriculoventricular valves will seal once more to forestall a backflow. 250

Undertaking 3: a ) Explain the map of the bosom.

The atria have thin muscled walls as the blood is merely going one semilunar valve downwards to the thicker muscled ventricles. The left ventricle has a marked thickness and strength for pumping blood upwards against gravitation to systemic circulation. The left ventricle wall is three times every bit thick as the right ventricle. Deoxygenated blood returns from the venas to come in the right atrium of the bosom through the superior and inferior vein cava. When full, blood so passively passes through the one manner tricuspid valve into the right ventricle which so contracts to impel blood through the pneumonic valve to come in the pneumonic arterias. Pneumonic circulation is transit of the blood through the right and left lungs to reassign oxygen the blood. The now oxygenated blood returns via the pneumonic venas to come in the left atrium. From here the blood fills the left perpendicular via the bicuspid valve. On strong contraction the left ventricle pushs rich in O blood by agencies of the infundibulum, up to through the aortal valve to the aortal bole and on to full systemic circulation. Systemic circulation is transit of oxygenated blood to the body’s arterias, variety meats, and tissues to keep aerophilic respiration. The circuit is completed via the venas to the vein cava. 209

B ) Explain the coronary circulation.

The bosom as an organ has a vigorous appetency for O to feed its dynamic musculuss and its assorted tissues. Crucially, the coronary arterias provide a separate blood supply. Profusion of the chamber musculuss along with the electrical nodes secures a steady cardiac end product. This bringing of O derives from an exterior web of arterias that originates at the aortal fistulas. The left and right coronary arterias descend and divide to keep a blood supply to the myocardium of the bosom Chamberss. The interventricular septum and the left ventricle have blood chiefly provided by the left circumflex and the anterior descending arteria. The right ventricle and right atrium plus posterior subdivisions of the left ventricle are provided by the right coronary arteria and its assorted subdivisions. Venous blood drains from the left ventricle to the coronary fistula and from the right ventricle to the anterior cardiac vena. Both drain to the right atrium. 153

Bibliography:

Aaronson, P. I. and Ward, J. P. T. 2007.The cardiovascular system at a glimpse. Malden, Mass. : Blackwell.

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Biosbcc.net. 2014.Bio 100: Heart Anatomy. [ on-line ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.biosbcc.net/b100cardio/htm/heartant.htm [ Accessed: 4 Jan 2014 ] .

Dean, L. 2013.Blood group antigens are surface markers on the ruddy blood cell membrane – Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens – NCBI Bookshelf. [ on-line ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2264/ [ Accessed: 21 Dec 2013 ] .

Butchs, M. and Watson, W. 2007.Anatomy. Edinburgh: Mosby/Elsevier.

Mcguinness, H. 2006.Anatomy & A ; physiology. London: Hodder Arnold.

Psbc.org. 2013.Introduction to Hematology | Blood Banking: Blood Groups. [ on-line ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.psbc.org/hematology/03_typing_groups.htm [ Accessed: 21 Dec 2013 ] .

Raff, H. and Levitzky, M. G. 2011.Medical physiology. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical.

Raff, H. and Levitzky, M. G. 2011.Medical physiology. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical.

Ramanathan, T. and Skinner, H. 2005. Coronary blood flow. 5 ( 2 ) , pp. 61-64. Available from: Department of the Interior: 10.1093/bjaceaccp/mki012.

Saburchill.com. 2014.The Open Door Web Site: IB Biology: Geneticss: Multiple Alleles. [ on-line ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.saburchill.com/IBbiology/chapters03/005.html [ Accessed: 6 Jan 2014 ] .

Torrance, J. 2002.Higher human biological science. London: Hodder & A ; Stoughton.

1

Lewis Buchan

Unit rubric: Blood and the Cardiovascular System.

Unit of measurement codification: PHO/3/LN/017

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