Subject: “ How have animate beings contributed to the promotion of biomedical scientific discipline over the past 10 old ages? ”

In Lancet, which is known to be one of the universe ‘s most celebrated medical diaries, it is said that, “The usage of animate beings in medical research and safety testing is a critical portion of the quest to better human wellness. It ever has been and likely ever will be, despite the options available… Without animate being testing, there will be no new drugs for new or hard-to-treat diseases… Rather than apologies for medical specialty as it is pursued today, society should be seeking to beef up it. Animal research is an indispensable portion of compassionate humanistic endeavor.” The statement briefly summarizes the importance of carnal proving in the advancement of scientific discipline. In fact, it has become a instead standardised procedure in which scientists develop trade name new engineerings, prove them utilizing carnal theoretical accounts and so implement them in a big graduated table to profit the humanity.

The thought of carnal testing is non a new thought to us at all. Equally long as 2300 old ages ago, the Grecian physiologist Erasistratus carried out the earliest recorded physiology research in hogs to analyze the maps of the bosom and respiratory systems. About 400 old ages subsequently, Galen published the first text edition on anatomy, based on dissections on hogs and apes. They laid the foundation of anatomy in today’s scientific universe utilizing carnal experimentation. Until today, carnal theoretical accounts are still important to the development of new surgical techniques and the innovation of up-to-date medical devices. However, much more animate beings are being used in biomedical research than experimental surgery today. The Biomedical scientific discipline continued to germinate after Claude Bernard established the subject based on carnal experimentation and Louis Pasteur, one of the three laminitiss of microbiology, used carnal experimentation to formalize his experimental method. The twentieth century is a clip period in which a myriad of accomplishments in biomedical scientific discipline were accomplished. The cardinal research and finds in immunology, organ organ transplants, physiology, and central diseases were largely done with the aid of carnal experimentation. Then, in our century, with the aid new engineerings such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( MRI ) , scientists are now able to acquire more accurate informations in carnal theoretical accounts with fewer animate beings and all these informations are lending to the discoveries in biomedical scientific discipline.

To understand how animate beings have contributed to the promotion of biomedical scientific discipline, we need to cognize why they are of import and necessary in the first topographic point. First, animate beings are the best alternates of human existences in scientific experiments. Even the most advanced electronic simulation could non bring forth satisfactory consequences every bit comprehensive as scientists could hold attained in carnal experimentation. This is due to the nature of Biology. Biology is different from other major scientific disciplines such as Physicss and Chemistry because it is more complex and less predicable. A theory may hold been tested 100s of times and be regarded as a truth ; still, it could bring forth different consequences in different beings. Therefore, scientist could non trust on the anticipation attained in electronic simulation. As they need sound and robust informations to formalize their hypotheses, scientists need to transport out experiments in alternates of human existences, who must be really similar to worlds in assorted facets such as cell construction and organ systems. In this sense, animate beings are the best picks for scientists to obtain helpful and accurate consequences.

Apart from moral considerations, animate beings are better topics of experimentation as they have a by and large sorter life span compared to human existences. Therefore, scientists can analyze the effects of certain drugs or surgical techniques in a long tally alternatively of obtaining consequences merely valid in short periods of clip. In add-on, animate beings are able to reproduce in a faster rate and more offspring for experimental usage.

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Last, as antecedently mentioned, the concluding testing of any new drugs or surgical techniques has to be conducted on a living being alternatively of an electronically fake system. Alternate methods such as cell civilization and electronic simulations may be effectual and accurate in early phases of proving. However, they could non foretell precisely the complicated reactions which occur in a complex life animate being organic structure system. Therefore, carnal experimentation is unreplaceable provided the current engineering degree.

With the aid of carnal experimentation, scientists have developed many life-saving drugs or techniques in the past century. For illustration, the Polio vaccinum, Thorazine, German rubeolas vaccinum, antibiotics, medical specialties for one time incurable diseases such as diabetes and kidney failures ; surgical techniques such as replacing of bosom valves, cardiac pacesetters, organ transplants ; medical techniques such as CT scanning and MRI scanning. These developments have saved 1000s of lives despite the fact that many people are non cognizant of what animate beings have contributed in the procedure. So, in this trade name new century, what animate beings have contributed to us and what is promised to convey more benefits to us?

The most celebrated usage of carnal experimentation in biomedical research is surveies of malignant neoplastic disease therapy. Cancer is a type of disease caused by an uncontrolled division of unnatural cells in a portion of the organic structure. Harmonizing to American Cancer Society, there were 1437180 new instances of malignant neoplastic disease in the twelvemonth of 2008 alone and 565650 deceases were incurred. The best carnal theoretical account for malignant neoplastic disease research has been mice. There are several grounds. First, mice are extremely available, easy handled, and reproduced in short periods of clip. Second, mice portion a 99 % of their cistrons of worlds and develop about all the malignant neoplastic diseases human existences could potentially develop. The mice besides have similar cistrons responsible for the development of the malignant neoplastic diseases in human existences. Therefore, scientists have been able to analyze the relationship between certain cistrons in mice and happening of malignant neoplastic disease, and so use the cognition to human existences. Using the fresh engineerings of cistron alteration, they add or delete certain cistrons in mice and analyze the consequence of these alterations on malignant neoplastic diseases, taking to many new finds of malignant neoplastic diseases. Last, bare mice could be produced in research labs, which lack Thymus and therefore hold a faulty immune system. In this manner, human tumours could be transplanted in mice without being rejected, and malignant neoplastic disease drugs or other therapies could be tested on them.1

The most recent development in malignant neoplastic disease therapy is in the intervention of chest malignant neoplastic disease. Aromatase inhibitor could suppress the enzyme aromatase which synthesizes estrogen. By making so, malignant neoplastic disease cells are deprived of estrogen and their growing is about stopped. Professor Angela Brodie of the University of Maryland developed this astonishing drug which was reported to convey a 50 % lessening in the rate of chest malignant neoplastic disease return after one twelvemonth of intervention. In his experiment, bare mice were used in whom carcinomas were induced. He discovered that aromatase inhibitor greatly reduced the tumour Lipo-Lutin receptor concentration, which is related to growing of tumour. In add-on, he found that a combination of the so most successful drug estrogen antagonist and aromatase inhibitor did non convey better mending consequence than armoatase inhibitor entirely. This is really of import in the intervention of malignant neoplastic disease as it non merely developed a new effectual drug but besides study the effects of combinations of different therapies, all with the aid of carnal experimentation.

Similarly, carnal research has besides contributed to the intervention of colon malignant neoplastic disease, which caused 2nd highest figure of deceases in the twelvemonth of 2008. A fresh surgical technique or instead an advanced equipment, microwave investigation was developed utilizing hog us the carnal theoretical account. Colon malignant neoplastic disease is normally easy to command unless metastasis occurs and it spreads to the liver, doing surgery about impossible. The microwave investigation is used by infixing it into the targeted tumour and killing the malignant neoplastic disease cells by heating them to a really high temperature. The hog theoretical account was used because the size of its liver is comparable to that of the human existences and more significantly, it is clearly non ethical or justified to utilize worlds even the patient is perceived to be incurable. In the experiment2, eight female swine were used to analyze the result of the surgery and find the suited continuance and power of microwave exposure. In the latest intelligence viewed in “Science Daily” , it is stated that “The intervention of more than 100 patients with liver malignant neoplastic disease has resulted in hardening or widening life for many of them, whose life forecast was less than 12 months” . 3This great accomplishment could hold been possible without the cardinal experiment conducted on the hog theoretical account.

The 2nd country where carnal research is indispensable is the surveies of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ( AIDS ) , which caused by the virus, Human Immunodeficiency Virus ( HIV ) . AIDS is a disease in which the body’s immune system is significantly compromised and opposition to infection and malignance greatly reduced. HIV is identified as a retrovirus, which is a RNA virus capable of retroflexing themselves by incorporating its Deoxyribonucleic acid transcript into the host cell. In this manner, the virus could short-circuit the examination of immune system without being detected. HIV could stay benign for many old ages until its symptoms are expressed, and by so, the virus would go unstoppable. Since it was identified by scientists, mice and non-human Primatess have been used in the research of the pathology of the diseases and the battle to happen a remedy for it. In the beginning, scientists did non anticipate Primatess to be helpful in the research as HIV did non bring on similar symptoms in Pan troglodytess. However, following surveies showed that there was a similar virus, viz. , the Simian Immunodeficiency Virus ( SIV ) could do similar inauspicious effects in macaque monkeys. 4At the same clip, the virus was found to be sensitive to the same drugs as HIV. This find was subsequently validated as scientists determined that the HIV and SIV are related to similar cistrons and both work by assailing a sort of immune cells called T aid ( CD4 ) . By analyzing the development of the disease in non-human Primatess, scientists were able to place the three chief ways in which HIV and SIV are transmitted. ( Sexual transmittal, perinatal transmittal and exposure to contaminated blood ) With the aid of these finds, physicians were so able to develop relevant methods to forestall to transmittal of the disease with safeguards, drugs and vaccinums. For illustration, in the twelvemonth of 2002, research workers in Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center developed a “humanized, nondepleting anti-CD4 antibody which blocks virus entry inhibits virus reproduction in Macaca mulatta monkeys inveterate infected with simian immunodeficiency virus” . 5 Briefly speech production, this survey showed us that it is possible to utilize antibodies to keep back the reproduction of SIV virus and therefore perchance HIV virus. Since the non-human Primatess were able to defy the drug, it is high possible that this sort of drug could be used in intervention of human existences in infirmaries.

The above-named procedure is normally known as toxicity testing, which is normally conducted by pharmaceutical companies before a fresh drug is brought into clinical usage. Again, animate beings have been playing a really of import function in this country. Just like the Macaca mulatta monkeys used in the experiment of anti-CD4 antibody, there are many other carnal theoretical accounts available. Generally, gnawers such as mice are preferred in early phases of proving because their handiness and high reproduction rate. However, in the surveies of AIDS, scientists were invariably hindered by the trouble of doing rodent theoretical accounts. Until the twelvemonth of 2006, a group of research workers in University of Maryland found that Sprague-Dawley rats, which are genetically modified to transport HIV-1 receptor composite on Cadmium T cells and macrophages, could be used as a possible presymptomatic proving theoretical account. This is because they discovered that inhibitors aiming virus entry successfully suppress HIV-1 infection in the mice theoretical account. The find is assuring as it proved that transgenic mice can now be used in proving of the efficaciousness of anti-HIV drugs in a faster and dependable mode, at the clip cut downing figure of Primatess required in this sort of proving. Once once more, all these promotions could non hold been made without the parts of animate beings such as mice and non-human Primatess.

Quite likewise, the usage of animate being theoretical accounts has ever been an indispensable and unreplaceable component in the survey of cognitive neuroscience. Basically, the purpose of the neuroscience is to analyze the construction and the map of the nervous system and encephalon. Therefore, it is obvious that neuroscientists need a really elaborate and accurate construction map of the nervous system and encephalon in human existences. However, it is clearly unethical to make such experiment on a life human being and is unpointed to execute it on a corpse as the consequences would be inaccurate. Consequently, an anatomical examination has to be performed on the encephalon of animate beings who have really similar encephalon construction and nervous system, and that makes macaque the best pick available. Harmonizing to Professor R.E. Passingham in Oxford University, UK, “There are already afoot surveies comparing connexions as established by diffusion weighted imagination in the macaque and human encephalon, and so far no major differences have been observed.” 6 The macaque therefore plays a really of import function in neuroscience as the cardinal theoretical account to construe consequences of encephalon imagination from human existences.
The most outstanding illustration of carnal research in neuroscience is likely the surveies of Parkinson’s disease. “Parkinson ‘s disease is a neurodegenerative disease whose primary symptoms are tremor, rigidness, bradykinesia ( slowed ability to get down and go on motions, and impaired ability to set the organic structure ‘s place ) and postural instability.”7 Using rats as the carnal theoretical account, the Nobel Prize-winning Swedish scientist Arvid Carlsson discovered that Dopastat in the 1950s ; and so the Czech brain doctor Oleh Hornykiewicz identified the substantia nigger degenerates in the instance of PD and ceases the production of Dopastat utilizing Primatess as theoretical accounts. Consequently, they identified L-dopa, which is the substance from which Dopastat is produced as an effectual intervention of Parkinson’s disease and the hypothesis was good supported by experimental informations from Primatess. In 1990s, a novel engineering called Deep Brain Stimulation ( DBS ) was foremost used on human existences, which involves the nidation of a medical device called a encephalon pacesetter to direct electrical signals to targeted parts of the encephalon. Its execution was merely approved after successful operation in monkeys and other non-human Primatess. In 2008, scientists from the University of Cincinnati and University Hospital used rat theoretical accounts to turn out that DBS could cut down the loss of encephalon cells by up to 50 per centum. 8 There are even more promising techniques being developed utilizing carnal theoretical accounts. In this twelvemonth, the research workers in Duke University developed a novel technique called spinal cord stimulation, which was proven to be more effectual and less invasive so the traditional method DBS. Mice and rats theoretical accounts with chronic Dopastat shortage were exposed to different degrees of electric stimulation on their spinal cord. They found that “When the device was used without extra medicine, Parkinsonian animate beings were 26 times more active. When stimulation was coupled with medicine, merely two L-DOPA doses were needed to bring forth motion compared to five doses when the medicine was used by itself.” 9 It can be clearly seen how of import carnal research is in all these biomedical progresss. Furthermore, with the aid of carnal experimentation, more fresh techniques or therapies would be developed, merely like the spinal cord stimulation technique.

Presents, about every people is profiting from the legion vaccinums available in all sorts of medical establishments. However, few of us realize what animate beings have contributed to do the development of vaccinums possible. The survey of animate being theoretical accounts is cardinal in the apprehension of how vaccines work and how they are developed. Similar to toxicity testing, the usage of theoretical accounts was normally in the testing of efficaciousness and possible inauspicious effects in animate beings before clinical usage of the vaccinums. Nowadays scientists are even more privileged with the aid of cistron therapy as they can infix human cistrons doing certain diseases into animate beings to bring on similar symptoms in the animate beings. In this manner, more accurate and dependable information could be obtained since the experiments conducted on animate beings could about accurately predict the efficaciousness of the vaccinums if they were used in worlds. Presently, there are many vaccinums being developed with the aid of carnal theoretical accounts. Cervarix, a vaccinum against Human Papillomavirus ( HPV ) 16 and 18 was developed utilizing Primatess and coneies as experimental theoretical account. Rabbits played the most of import function in its development as there is a virus, the wood rabbit coney villoma virus ( CRPV ) , which is really similar to HPV in many facets. 10 Using the coney as the cardinal theoretical account and the CRPV as the replacement virus theoretical account, of import finds about HPV were made and the vaccinum was developed. Alzheimer’s disease, which causes progressive mental impairment due to devolution of the encephalon, is being studied utilizing Macaca mulatta monkeys as theoretical accounts. In a diary published in 2004, the scientists did a controlled experiment to entree the consequence of a vaccine- aggregative Abeta in two groups of Macaca mulatta monkeys. It was showed that the group vaccinated benefited from the vaccinum evidently as the devolution of their encephalon was about prevented. The consequence was really promising as it non merely one time once more showed that the usage of carnal theoretical account was relevant and at the same clip, it opened future chances of new vaccinums of the disease to be used on human beings.11

While we are overjoyed at the current success of biomedical scientific discipline, it is besides important for us to aware that there are still many troublesome diseases that scientists are fighting to manage with them. Alarmingly, these diseases are normally prevailing in less developed states, striping normal lives of 1000s of people mundane, for illustration, TB and malaria. Tuberculosis is a lifelessly infective bacterial disease characterized by the growing of tubercles in the tissues, particularly in the lungs. Based on the one-year study of the World Health Organization, there were about 9.27 million new instances reported across the Earth in the twelvemonth of 2007 entirely. Among these patients, 1.32 million died and an extra 456000 TB deceases incurred among HIV-positive people. Presently, the chief intervention of it is dependent on the usage of antibiotics and vaccinum. Worryingly, both methods are non riskless. The vaccinum, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin, merely provides weak protection and it is non effectual in bar of pneumonic TB in grownups. However, a new vaccinum is being developed which has showed impressive consequences in animate beings. The secA2 mutant TB vaccinum, developed by research workers at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, was proven to be more effectual so the lone TB vaccinum we have now. In the experiment they conducted with research lab animate beings, those vaccinated with the secA2 vaccinum had significantly less bacteriums left after two month of observation compared to those vaccinated with BCG. 12 Similarly, the research of malaria, yet another endemic disease across the universe, is dependent of the usage of carnal experimentation to happen a dependable vaccinum. Malaria is infective diseases characterized by intermittent and remittent febrility. It is caused by a protozoon parasite which attacks the ruddy blood cells and is transmitted by mosquitoes in many tropical and semitropical parts. Harmonizing to the World Health organisation, “there were 247 million instances of malaria in 2006, doing about one million deceases, largely among African children.” Sadly, there is no effectual vaccinum of malaria yet. The development of vaccinum for malaria has long been the concern of scientists. Once once more, the application of carnal research is now turn outing yet another promising possible vaccinum for human existences. Harmonizing to the latest in July of 2009, research workers at the Johns Hopkins Malaria Research Institute have developed a possible transmission-blocking vaccinum which was proved to be effectual in mice and non-human Primatess. In their experiments, they produced a malarial protein, viz. , the Pfs48/45, which could efficaciously smother the development of the parasite, therefore forestalling the malaria from developing. The vaccinum was tested on mice and non-human Primatess. The consequences were assuring with an over 90 percent transmission-blocking immune response. 13 From the several graphic illustrations above, it could be clearly seen that carnal research is highly of import in the field of vaccine production. Merely with the aid of carnal theoretical accounts, a cardinal apprehension of the diseases could be obtained and vaccinums produced. Furthermore, without proving the possible vaccinums on animate beings, cipher would make bold to utilize them on human existences for the fright of doing unpredictable inauspicious effects.

In many of the illustrations given above, many surveies involved transgenic animate beings. So, how are they made available? The reply lies with the usage of the technique of cistron technology. Using this technique, scientists are able no insert or reassign cistrons from an being to another unrelated being so that it could treat new traits from the original being. With the aid of this technique, a new subdivision of biomedical scientific discipline has evolved- cistron therapy. Gene therapy refers to the interpolation of cistrons into diseases-causing cells or tissues to replace the hurtful cistrons. It is the ultimate end of medical intervention since it solves the root of the job and virtually eliminates the disease alternatively of merely stamp downing it. The development of cistron therapy has been closely related to the carnal research. Sickle cell anaemia is a familial disease in which a mutant in the haemoglobin cistron leads to deformation of ruddy blood cells into a semilunar form. The ability of the ruddy blood cells to adhere with O is significantly lowered and life anticipation of patients is reduced. The current intervention of the disease is either uneffective or really painful. Therefore, the usage of cistron therapy is expected to be a perfect tool to work out the crisis. In 2006, scientists did an experiment on mice with reaping hook cell disease and obtained impressive consequences. They used the technique of cistron technology to reassign a correcting cistron for the disease into the bone marrow of the mice and so transplanted the bone marrow back to the mice. In up to ten month of proving, the mice with the transplanted cistrons have the antisickling protein in up to 52 % of their entire haemoglobin and 99 % of their blood circulating ruddy blood cells. Now, after many unit of ammunitions of proving in animate beings, the technique is being carefully applied to worlds in clinical tests. 14 Transgenic animate beings are non merely being used as carnal theoretical accounts in experiments ; they are now lending in an even more important field- the production of human proteins, human replacing valves or even whole variety meats. Alternatively of bring forthing medical specialties utilizing chemicals, biomedical research now opens the chance to bring forth human proteins in animate beings to be used as drugs. In the latest intelligence, the US authorities has approved “the first drug made utilizing genetically engineered animals” . The drug, viz. , Atryn, is made from human proteins obtained in the milk of genetically modified caprine animals. 15 The drug is used in the bar of blood coagulums in patients with a upset known as familial antithrombin lack. In the production procedure, human antithrombin cistrons are inserted into the embryos of the caprine animals, enabling them to bring forth milk contains the coveted proteins. Similarly, some scientists are now utilizing transgenic biddies to bring forth a protein called egg white. The Whites of the legs laid by these transgenic biddies contain a great sum of the protein and these transgenic biddies now provides the chief beginning for the production of this pharmaceutical protein. 16
The last illustration of animals’ part to the progress of biomedical research, which is besides the latest developed engineering, is the application of cognition pertaining to the root cells in cell therapy and regenerative medical specialty. What are stem cells? We can utilize a simple analogy to exemplify the difference between normal cells and root cells. If we regard cells as the edifice blocks of human organic structures, so root cells are the charming 1s which could develop into any type of blocks finally. The usage of root cells has the possible to revolutionise the current medical industry as it provides chances to handle presently incurable diseases such as encephalon harm, muscular dystrophy and spinal cord harm. Because of the ability of the root cells to develop into all the 210 distinguishable types known in human organic structure, it is possible to transfer root cells to any damaged tissues or variety meats to mend them. Although there are non yet really effectual therapies developed, the application of root cell therapy still has a really promising hereafter. Presently, a group of scientists at the University of Missouri are utilizing hogs as their theoretical accounts to analyze the possible usage of root cell therapy in the hereafter. In their experiments, the hogs were genetically modified by infixing cistrons in to cells in connective tissue of the hogs. They successfully obtained root cells in their experiments and are presently researching on how to steer these root cells to develop into specific types of cells desired. 17 If the research progresses swimmingly, it will non be astonishing for us to see in the hereafter that badly damaged tissues or even variety meats be regenerated utilizing this engineering. This will no longer be our imaginativeness in the scientific discipline fiction but truly go on in our lives. There are besides other similar possible interventions such as the fix of spinal cord hurt, tegument Burnss and cicatrixs. Among them, the development of fix of spinal cord hurt has shown the most impressive advancement. In 2009, a new survey has shown that organ transplant of root cells into the damaged part of spinal cord in animate being theoretical accounts could change by reversal the palsy resulted and brought new hopes for the patients who have been diagnosed to be for good disabled due to spinal cord hurt. Again, all these progresss and future promises would be impossible without the aid of the animate beings along the manner of researches.

In a nut shell, although the usage of animate beings may be considered inhumane or even immoral, the usage of animate being theoretical accounts in biomedical researches is inevitable provided there are no superior replacements of them. While we as human existences are basking the benefits from the progresss contributed significantly by the animate beings, we should be cognizant of their of import functions and esteem their parts in the development of biomedical scientific discipline. At the same clip, we should be grateful for what they have done for us in the past old ages and be confident about the dazzling chances animal researches have provided to us.

Mentions:

1. hypertext transfer protocol: //science.jrank.org/pages/382/Animal-Cancer-Tests.html ” & gt ; Animal Cancer Tests – Mice—the best carnal theoretical account for malignant neoplastic disease research

2. Microwave Ablation with Loop Antenna: In Vivo Porcine Liver Model

3. University of Leicester ( 2009, May 14 ) . Microwave Technique Successful In Treatment of Liver Tumors, Surgeon Shows. ScienceDaily. Retrieved August 30, 2009, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.sciencedaily.com¬ /releases/2009/05/090513121629.htm

4. The SIV-infected Macaca mulatta monkey theoretical account for HIV-associated dementedness and deductions for neurological diseases, by DM Rausch, EA Murray and LE Eiden hypertext transfer protocol: //www.jleukbio.org/cgi/content/abstract/65/4/466

5. A humanized, nondepleting anti-CD4 antibody that blocks virus entry inhibits virus reproduction in Macaca mulatta monkeys inveterate infected with simian immunodeficiency virus. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12167266

6. The demand for research on non-human Primatess in cognitive neuroscience hypertext transfer protocol: //www.animalresearch.info/en/medical/articles/primates_in_cognitive_neuroscience

7. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.neurological.org.nz/html/article.php? documentCode=109508. University of Cincinnati ( 2008, September 3 ) .

8. Deep Brain Stimulation Halts Cell Loss, Parkinson ‘s Researchers Find. Science Daily. Retrieved August 30, 2009, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.sciencedaily.com­ /releases/2008/09/080902171151.htm

9. Duke University Medical Center ( 2009, March 21 ) . Novel Spinal Cord Stimulator Sparks Hope for Parkinson ‘s Disease Treatment. ScienceDaily. Retrieved August 30, 2009, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.sciencedaily.com­ /releases/2009/03/090319142357.htm

10. Giri, Isabelle ; Danos, Olivier ; Yaniv, Moshe ( 1985 ) , “ Genomic Structure of the Cottontail Rabbit ( Shope ) Papillomavirus ” , PNAS 82: 1580-1584, doi:10.1073/pnas.82.6.1580

11. Alzheimer ‘s Abeta inoculation of Macaca mulatta monkeys ( Macaca mulatta ) , Mech Ageing Dev. 2004 Feb ; 125 ( 2 ) :149-51 )

12. Journal of Clinical Investigation Demonstrates Better Protection than Standard Vaccine Used Worldwide, hypertext transfer protocol: //www.einstein.yu.edu/home/newsArchive.asp? id=364

13. Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health ( 2009, July 23 ) . Vaccine Blocks Malaria Transmission in Lab Experiments. ScienceDaily. Retrieved August 31, 2009, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.sciencedaily.com¬ /releases/2009/07/090722110850.htm

14. Science 14 December 2001: Vol. 294. no. 5550, pp. 2368 – 2371DOI: 10.1126/science.1065806, Correction of Sickle Cell Disease in Transgenic Mouse Models by Gene Therapy

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17. University of Missouri-Columbia ( 2009, June 26 ) . Stem Cells Created From Pigs ‘ Connective Tissue Cells. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 1, 2009, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.sciencedaily.com¬ /releases/2009/06/090625141508.htm

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