In this 2nd chapter of the literature reappraisal, the theoretical background of motive is explained. This chapter will aline major factors like the importance of motive, what actuate single to prosecute in escapade touristry, specially the babe boomers, and how motive could assist in the determination devising procedure.
The theory of motive was foremost developed during the Post-World War II, more exactly during the 50s and 60s ( Zehrer and Siller, 2007 ) . The term Motivation is originated from the Latin word ‘Movere ‘ , and this means ‘to move ‘ ( Wing, 2011 ) . Motivation can be defined as the procedure by which an person will be determined to take action or behave in a certain mode ( Decrop, 2006 ) . Motivation is known to be one of the cardinal grounds to understand and explicate why does behaviour happened. ( Snepenger, King, Marshall, and Uysal, 2006 ) in ( Phan, 2010 ) . Furthermore, Solomon ( 2004 ) described motive as a ‘driving force ‘ that pushes persons to action. Motivation is all about a province of demand and desire to make and accomplish something ( Moutinho, 2000 ) in ( Esichaikul, 2012 ) .
3.2. Motivation in the touristry context
Understanding the construct of motive in touristry is to understand the basic motivations and grounds for tourers to go ( Trang, 2011 ) . Several surveies have been undertaken on touristry motives, it includes Plog ( 1974 ) , Crompton ( 1979 ) , Hudman ( 1980 ) ; Dann ( 1981 ) ; IsoAhola ( 1982 ) ; Beard and Ragheb ( 1983 ) ; Pearce and Caltabiano ( 1983 ) ; Mansfeld ( 1992 ) ; Uysal and Hagan ( 1993 ) ; Fodness ( 1994 ) ; Gibson and Yiannakis ( 2002 ) ; Kozak ( 2002 ) ; Horner andSwarbrooke ( 2004 ) ; Kurzman and Zauhar ( 2005 ) ; Decrop ( 2006 ) ; Zehrer and Siller ( 2007 ) ; Devonish and Jonsoon ( 2008 ) ; Romando ( 2008 ) ; Esichaikul ( 2012 ) .
Tonss of research has been undertaken on tourer motive to go to a peculiar finish but small has been done on motive of tourers to take part in leisure or escapade activities. Fews have been analyzed as portion of research and most normally and recent 1s good known are from Hudson ( 2003 ) ; Pomfret ( 2004 ) ; Phan ( 2010 ) ; Smerek ( 2010 ) ; Reynolds and Hritz ( 2012 ) .
Mentioning to Leiper ‘s doctrine, understanding tourer ‘s consumer behaviour is an indispensable tool for successful touristry planning and selling activity ( Choibamrong, 2005 ) . It is obvious that consumer ‘s behaviour is by no agencies easy and is influenced by so many factors chiefly in globalisation epoch
3.3. Adventure, babe boomers and Motivation
Sung et Al ( 1997 ) in Sung et Al ( 2004 ) stated thatin escapade travel it is important to understand the chief motivations of people to prosecute in specific activities, analysing the traveller ‘s features such as demographic information, psychographics like chief demands and wants and their rule outlook ( Weber, 2001 ) . Surveies have demonstrated that older tourers perceived adventure touristry more alluring and want to gamble themselves to derive a personal satisfaction ( Gibson and Singleton, 2011 ) . Some older people have the desire to acquire off from emphasis and ennui of day-to-day modus operandi. They want to bask their vacations with a scope of exciting and new physically ambitious activities and run into new people to construct up relationships ( Camden and Mccoll-Kennedy, 1990 ; Kludge, 2005 ) .To understand motive in leisure activities is to understand what encouraged tourers to take a certain activity ( PhanThi Kim Lien, 2010 ) .
Empirical surveies have shown that the Travel Career Ladder ( TCL ) theoretical account was an equal instrument in understanding travel motive ( Kim, 1997 ; Lee, 1998 ; Loker-Murphy, 1995 ; Mills, 1985 ; Pearce, 1988, 2005 ; Teichmann and Zins, 2009 ) . The TCL theoretical account is the most probableapplication for the design of motivational research for particular markets such as eco tourers for case ( Pearce, 2005 ) . From this statement, we deduct that the theoretical account is therefore observed to be a suited tool for adventure touristry. The construct of the TCL theoretical account was initiated by Pearce ( 1988 ) and updated in his publication in 2005, The Tourist Behavior: Subjects and Conceptual Schemes ( McNeil and Williams, 2011 ) .
Adapted from Maslow ‘s ( 1970 ) , Pearce adopt the five hierarchal classs of act uponing the tourer motive ( Teichmann and Zins, 2009 ) . This includes Biological demands ( Relaxation needs ) , safety and security demands ( or degree of stimulation ) , Relationship development and extension demands, self-esteem and development demands and Self-actualization and fulfilment demands. The TCL presumed that tourers when deriving more travel experience will travel up the ladder towards high-ranking demands. Figure 2 demonstrate the hierarchy of Pearce Travel calling ladder: This includes Fulfillment degree, Self-esteem and development, relationship, stimulation and relaxation.
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Figure 2: Hierarchy of Pearce Travel Career ladder
Beginning: Ryan ( 1998 )
Harmonizing to the TCL theoretical account and diverse tourer motive and experience, people may get down at different degree of the ladder ; this may change with some up guarding the ladder and some others down guarding it ( McNeil and Williams, 2011 ) . For case, a new tourer in escapade might wish to get down with a soft activity like bird-watching or horse-riding, an activity that demand less physical attempts, low in hazard and experience peace and harmoniousness. Furthermore sing the security and safety demands, one must wish an activity depression from hazard while the other one seeking for epinephrine might desire an activity high in hazard.
As per Phan ( 2010 ) , person might hold a greater demand for accomplishment instead than a demand foraffiliation, power, or uniqueness. This can affect take parting in an activity or making something all entirely insulating themselves from others so as to fulfill chief demands and desires. Additionally, such persons like to put personal ends that are neither excessively low in a manner for it to be accomplishable nor excessively high that would be impossible.
It is important to indicate out that similar to Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands, the TCL coincide with the theoretical model, because it clearly shows that as people get more experiences, their motive tend to alter ( Ryan, 1998 ) . Furthermore, Ryan ( 1998 ) notes that those going for the first clip might prefer to book a bundle circuit for more security butin clip and with more experience will choose for a more self-arranged travel path ( McNeil and Williams, 2011 ) . Similarly, Crompton ( 1979 ) came out with seven dimensions of motive as an influence to leisure this include escape ; relaxation ; prestige ; geographic expedition and self-evaluation ; arrested development ; kinship relationships sweetening and facilitation of societal interaction. It is farther observed that motivations for societal interaction, sweetening of human dealingss and pleasance seeking has repetitively been observed and analyzed as major actuating factor in different surveies ( Beard and Ragheb, 1983 ; Kim and Chalip, 2004 ; Kozak, 2002 ; Wann, Ensor and Bilyeu 2001 ; Zhang and Lam, 1999 ) , cited in ( Regan and Carlson, 2009 ) .
Another tool, good known in measuring tourer motive is the leisure motive graduated table of Beard and Ragheb ( 1980 ; 1983 ) . This is found to be a suited tool in mensurating leisure motive factor since it encompassesintellectual, societal, mastery/competence, and stimulus turning away motivations. The rational elements mean that people take parting in leisure activities are in pursuit of find, increase their cognition. The 2nd factor is the societal motivation ; this implies a personal motivation that will fulfill human relationship with others, a sense of belonging, and regard from others ( Maslow ‘s hierarchy, 1943 ) . The 3rd motivational factor is competence/mastery motivation. This stimulates persons prosecuting in leisure physical activities to “ accomplish, maestro, challenge and compete ” . The last motivation is the stimulus-avoidance motivation, which is about escape from the humdrum modus operandi, emphasis and tenseness, or to review and hold rest in a new environment ( Phan, 2010 ; Niemela, 2010 ) .
3.4. Cleavage based on motive
Harmonizing to Schiffman and Kanuk ( 2004: 158 ) , “ Market Segmentation can be defined as the procedure of spliting a market into distinguishable subsets of consumers with common demands or features and choosing one or more sections to aim with a distinguishable market mix ” .When speaking about motive, it is of import to see the facet of cleavage. The babe boomers could be considered as one section of new or future retired persons but their motivations are diverse ( Phan, 2010 ) . Categorizing the motivations into different features will assist research workers and sellers to profit from profound and utile information.
It has been observed that the enlargement of escapade touristry is chiefly due to a demographic, personal, socio-economic, political and technological alteration ( Swarbrookeet al. 2003 ) . It is true that alterations are non changeless and maintain updating, but such tendencies are known to be footing of prognosiss for several research workers.
One of the most of import influences of tourer motive is the demographic features ( Rose and Kahle, 1998 ; Muso, Hall and Higham, 2004 ; Bonera, 2008 ) . Demographics element consists of gender, age class, household forms, nationality ( Swarbrookeet al. 2003 ; Bonera, 2008 ; Devonish and Jonsson, 2008 ) . Many adult females have few kids or have already big kids populating on their ain and as portion of household and family construction ; there are more single-parent households and childless twosomes ( Swarbrooke et al. 2003 ) .
Another facet which is deriving more persuasion on the tourer motive is age ( Bonera, 2008 ) . Gibson and Yiannakis ( 2002 ) have studied this theory, underlying the touristry ground through a life rhythm. This explains that those baby boomers aged from 47 to 50 are more motivated to go and prosecute in activities due to superior economic benefit. This to boot led to a desire to demo off their position reached, in pursuit of challenge and epinephrine or merely a desire to see something new wholly different from their usual modus operandi. While those aged between 50 and 55 old ages old, and those over 65 are more involved in soft activities that demand less attempt and where security is mended.
On the other manus other research has found that gender and age are factors impacting the perceived image and pick for peculiar leisure countries ( Baloglu, 1997 ; Baloglu and McCleary, 1999 ; Chen and Kerstetter, 1999 ; Walmsley and Jenkins, 1993 ) .In resistance, Andreu, Kozac, Avci and Cifter ( 2005 ) found that age of person do non hold any dramatic influence on the motive. The writers assessed that females had stronger motives to go than males where male tourers had a penchant for more demanding recreational activities, inquiring for actionswhile female tourers had a stronger demand for relaxation and escape-based motivations ( Devonish and Jonsson, 2008 ) .
As mentioned earlier, nationality every bit good as civilization can act upon the tourer pick in prosecuting in escapade activities ( Swarbrooke et al.2003 ) . This includes tourers from cold countries going in warm countries or frailty versa, taking a finish where the clime might be more equal and better to pattern a peculiar activity than would hold been in their state. This can include tourers from European market coming to alien finish to make H2O feature activities like white water rafting, kite surfboarding, or weave surfing such activities being more suited for alien finish holding the sea, good air current conditions and deep moving ridges. These demographic tendencies are a consequence of a alteration in societal promotion and more fiscal power ; moreover there are socio-economic factors.
Socio-economic tendencies include income and clip disposable, altering attitudes to ageing, womb-to-tomb instruction, Health and fittingness. In today ‘s universe, babe boomers have the clip, inclination to go and see new activities but more significantly have the money to bask all the privilege of recreational activities ( Patterson, 2006 ) . It is observed that in about all developed states, those people being 55 or above benefit from better discretional income holding all investings and debts cleared for the house, holding grownup kids no longer dependent on them ( Chon and Singh, 1995 ) .
As seen antecedently, babe boomers tend to be more educated than their predecessors ( Patterson, 2006 ) . Mintel ( 2000b ) province leisure is perceived as a personal growing since persons turn out to be more adult and more educated. As a consequence, these people are more interested to prosecute in escapade for self-development and to better womb-to-tomb instruction ( Swarbrookeet al.2003 ) . Furthermore, an addition in fitter manner of life is an indicant of more babe boomer ‘s engagement in escapade activities.
A modernisation in engineering has result in an impressive addition in adventure engagement. This has improved the easiness of entree to many adventure diversion sites. Subsequently, technological betterments have brought some installations to the accomplishment of the participant chiefly while prosecuting in unsafe proceedings or environments. There is besides patterned advance in vesture and equipment, for illustration mounting ropes ( Ewert and Hollenhorst, 1997 ) . Baby boomers are truly concerned about safety and security facets and such steps being taken by escapade operators has promote farther engagement. In add-on, due to the technological promotion, babe boomers are now set uping their ain trip agreement through direct reserve on the cyberspace, looking on their ain for discounted monetary values instead than traveling to tour operators. Parr ( 2012 ) identified this tendency and argue that cyberspace engagement has known a rapid growing since 7years. In 2005, they used to book their vacations through direct travel bureau but in 2012, this has dropped down and more babe boomers are now happening it easier and cheaper to book on the cyberspace.
3.5. Push and Pull Factors
The key to grok touristry motivations in any touristry literature is frequently categorized into the footings push and pull forces ( Crouch et Al, 2004 ) . Dann ( 1977 ) was the first research worker to suggest these two dimensions, other research workers relied on the theory every bit good ( Crompton, 1979 ; Mannel and Iso-Ahola, 1987 ; Bandura, 1987 ; Yuan and Donald, 1990 ; Andreu, Bigne and Cooper, 2000 ; Kozak, 2002 ; Swarbrooke et Al, 2003 ; Woodside and Martin, 2008 ) .
3.5.1. Push factors
“ Push ” factors can be defined as “ intangible factors that push a tourer off from his place ” , while “ Pull ” factors are “ touchable factors drawing tourers towards a finish ” ( Andreu, Bignr and Cooper, 2000 ) in ( mo 44 ) . Push factors are frequently related to inner motivations such a desire for freshness and escape ( mo 29 ) and pull factors similar to outer motivations like the attraction of a peculiar finish or activity ( mo 29 ) . Conventionally, push motivations were considered as functional to clarify the grounds for going, in this survey prosecuting in the activities while pull motivations is observed as practical to give account to the existent finish or activities ‘ pick ( mo 27 ) .
Push factors are chiefly known to be socio-psychological motivations that affect the tourer consumer determination, whilst pull factors are those stimulations that pulled person to seek the experience ( Mo 37 ) . Crompton ( 1979 ) in partial understanding with Dann ( 1977 ) considers seven push factors include escape from the day-to-day modus operandi, scrutiny and rating of self-development and advancement, in pursuit of new friendly relationship and societal relationship. The pull motivations involve freshness and instruction ( mo 47 ) , ( mo 6 ) .
Baby boomers are largely pushed in escapade touristry for merriment ( Hudson, 2003 ) . Baby boomers are in pursuit of latest and exciting escapade experiences, test their physical abilities and go on to be more active. Swarbrooke et Al ( 2003 ) ( Mo 1 ) . Patterson ( 2006 ) points out that some are truly seeking bigger alteration, diverseness, challenge to get away the humdrum of mundane modus operandi. On the other manus, Muller and O’Cass ( 2001 ) put frontward the impression of ‘subjective age ‘ as foremost motive for babe boomers to take on escapade travel. Older people have this desire and nostalgia to experience younger and their trip and pick penchants are often similar to younger people ( Patterson, 2006 ) . There is presents an increasing consideration and demand for personal development, this was chiefly due to higher instruction, professional development and excellence and thanks to globalization that such demand and motivations have been popularized ( Swarbrooke et al.,2003 ) .
3.5.2 Pull factors
Pull factors are besides known as outer motives ( Robinson et al, 2011 ) , where persons is ‘pulled ‘ or enticed by other factors to prosecute in something while the determination has already been made ( Lam and Hsu, 2006 ) . On the other manus, Jang and Cai ( 2002, p.114 ) province that pull elements is what influence person in its determination, this encompass the ‘When, Where and How ‘ to make things.
In the context of Adventure Tourism, finish is one component of pull factors that play a critical function in the motive of persons ( Ewert, 1985 ; Millington et al. , 2001, p.77 ) . This could be taking a finish because of the beauty that comprise its natural surrounding, for case taking the determination to travel for Safari in Kenya or traveling for mountaineering in the Himalayas. Furthermore, the pull factor could be due to a favourable conditions status ( Pomfret, 2004 ) .For illustration, to bask from a good conditions conditions for kite surfboarding in Mauritius, one should take part in it during the winter season, get downing from June to November. These periods are suited since the island is under the South East Trade winds influence.
In add-on, the natural environment in which the activity is occurred can be studied all the manner through the Recreation Opportunity Spectrum ( Pomfret, 2004 ) . The Recreation Opportunity Spectrum can be defined as the ‘availability of the pick to take part in a preferable diversion activity within a preferable scene and to bask the coveted experience ‘ ( The British Columbia Resources Inventory Committee, 1998, p. Iv ) . This encompasses a scope of puting anterior to the physical environment including majorly entree, farness, naturalness every bit good as the countryside and topography ( Clarke and Stankey, 1979 ) . This natural scene in adventure touristry could be seen as an influential factor. For case, a babe boomer might prefer a natural landscape where entree is non so easy, necessitating a minimal degree of hazard, being wholly crude and one with nature. On the contrary, another can be looking for a site where entree is easy, easy-doing activities and where they could profit from some installations on-site. Therefore, it is to be noted that the determination to take part in the activity was already made ; nevertheless the features of the location could move as a dominant characteristic in the person ‘s pick.
Finally, there are the selling elements moving as basic stimulations as portion of pull factor. This include the selling mix which is merchandise, topographic point, monetary value, publicity ( Kotleret al. , 2008 ) , followed by promotional and advertisement facets ( Goosens, 2000 ) . Though through booklets, travel books and cyberspace, persons are persuaded or stimulated to prosecute in a peculiar activity.