Dark touristry has been defined as embracing the trial to any site associated with decease, catastrophe and calamity in the 20th century for recollection, instruction or amusement. Furthermore Howie ( 2003 ) argues that visits to the sites of recent calamities, as for illustration the site of the World Trade Center in New York destroyed by terrorist onslaughts in 2001, raise issues of both echt compassion and morbid captivation. Urry ( 1991, taken from Theobald, 1994 ) besides suggests that nostalgia, it would look, knows no bounds, to the practical extent that the worse the experience the more appealing the attractive force. The thought of dark side of touristry has besides been identified by Dann and Seaton ( 2001 ) as integrating what they call thanatourism, milking the macabre as a sort that pervades touristry in general.
As suggested by McCormick ( 2004 ) dark touristry is non a new phenomenon as it can be referred back to the 12th century when the violent decease of the British Canterbury in the town ‘s cathedral attracted many people to the site. Today ‘s sites such as Chernobyl, The World Trade Center, Auschwitz or even sites where celebrated people were killed such as John F Kennedy are all sing an addition in visitant ‘s figure ( Lennon and Foley, 2004 ) . As an article by the Guardian ( 2004 ) suggest, the detonation that in 1986, ripped the roof off Chernobyl ‘s 4th reactor, doing the edifice ‘s walls to flex and hurtling dozenss of radioactive waste into the air, is today a popular tourer site. For aliens, Chernobyl is easy added to a long list of tourer attractive forces whose celebrity turns on calamity or catastrophe, but for those that live in the affected country, it is a different narrative. As the Ukrainian tourer board ‘s executive manager suggested:Chernobyl is non a historical topographic point, it is a kiping king of beasts, and when a king of beasts is kiping you do non open the coop.
Other historical sites besides include that of Auschwitz, a symbol of panic, race murder and the Holocaust. The figure of registered visitants to this site are increasing and as the statistics show, the figure of visitants of some states, such as the USA, has doubled from 34404 to 62997 between 2003 and 2004 ( Auschwitz, 2004 ) , re-affirming the statement put frontward by Lennon and Foley ( 2004 ) that dark touristry is on the addition.
More late a finish that has been affected by the terrorist onslaughts and that has seen an addition in inward touristry, has been the World Trade Center, or better known as Land Zero. In 2002, the ruins of the World Trade Center in New York attracted 3.6 million visitants, while the observation deck from the integral towers used to pull an norm of 1.8 million tourers per twelvemonth ( McCormick, 2004 ) .
It must be noted that there are many more sites that have non been antecedently mentioned that are deserving sing for future research to further understand the spread of dark touristry.
Having considered some of the sites that best represent the position of dark touristry, the essay will now briefly expression at the grounds behind this signifier of touristry and an in-depth analysis of the deductions on touristry direction issues will follow.
Foley, Lennon and Maxwell ( 1997 ) suggest that many of the deceases and catastrophes that gave rise to heritage reading had received considerable coverage via planetary media, international intelligence and movie media. Young ( 1993, taken from Lennon and Foley, 2004 ) argues that there are elements of the antediluvian in dark touristry, in the trial of these sites that are intended to keep memory. Peoples will be motivated by different things, possibly they decide to see these sites out of wonder, pay their regard to those who have lost their lives or merely because they feel as if they are portion of this ( Di Sante, 2003 ) .
For the intent of this undertaking, the essay will now see the touristry direction issues as a consequence of the widespread of dark touristry. As with any tourer site, the preservation and precaution of these memorials, museums or any other site, is possibly the most relevant of all. Although the addition of dark touristry may intend that more people are now cognizant of what has happened for illustration during the Nazism and possibly in a manner it limits these atrociousnesss to be repeated, a figure of of import issues have besides been identified. As suggested by Lennon ( 2004 )if there are tonss of people involved in these attractive forces, you need ordinances. It promotes utmost sensitivenesss and a batch depends on the motive of visitants, is it morbid wonder or is there personal grounds?One of the touristry direction issues identified is that of the long-run harm caused by visitants. Inevitably the high figure of visitants received by sites such as Auschwitz, land Zero, Chernobyl, will hold an impact in the long term. Therefore it is of import to enforce a visitant figure direction to command how many visitants are coming through the site. The protection of these are critical if harm is to be avoid and protection is besides needed to keep vandals from go forthing their grade on everything they visit ( Yale, 2004 ) .
As Yale ( 2004 ) besides suggests weathering is besides a major concern for those sites that are exposed to the elements, air current, rain, hoar and Sun, can be damaged unless shelter is provided or particular agreements made. Auschwitz cantonment is a perfect illustration for this. It is in the procedure of continual eroding ; the growing of flora and foliage- coverage has to be managed and controlled. As Lennon and Foley ( 2004 ) further suggest, there should be direction instead than Restoration. This dark attractive force has swelled visitant figure and catalysed economic activity.
A really of import issue besides identified is that of civilization direction. Tourist must be given a codification of behavior and be educated to act in a certain manner when sing peculiar sites as to conform and incorporate with the local community to avoid struggle. Tourist themselves have, or should hold, an duty to detect codifications of behavior and be cognizant of cultural norms in the finish they are sing ( Howie, 2003 ) .
Some behavior such as intoxicant maltreatment, shouting, contending should non be permitted as these might diss the local community and deficiency of regard needed in these calamity sites.While at Auschwitz-Birkenau, groups of schoolchildren were taking exposure of each other, parents were snaping their kids at the Gatess of Birkenau and so, school parties were sitting on the ruins of the crematory feeding sandwiches( Lennon and Foley, 2004 ) .
Furthermore financess required to conserve sites will besides be of consideration. The two options that will be available to raise financess would likely lie with authorities support and a visitant ‘s entryway fee.
It can be construed that the phenomenon of dark touristry is non a recent tendency but its beginnings can be traced back to the 12th century. Dark touristry has been defined as those visits to any site associated with decease, catastrophe and calamity in the 20th century for recollection, instruction or amusement. It was noted that there are assorted grounds of why people decide to see these peculiar sites ; morbid wonder, recollection, the demand to pay respects are merely a few of these. The essay besides looked at the more common instances of sites where dark touristry is more noticeable. Auschwitz, Chernobyl and the World Trade Center were taken into consideration while it was besides noted that other sites such as the decease site of John F Kennedy ‘s slaying provoke people ‘s involvements. It was besides noted that the figure of visitants, of a peculiar state, at certain sites such as Auschwitz had doubled between 2003 and 2004 re-affirming the statement that suggested that dark touristry is increasing.
Furthermore, the essay besides determined that there are a figure of touristry direction issues involved with dark touristry ; preservation and precaution of these sites ; enduring of those sites exposed to the elements, air current, rain, hoar and Sun, and that can be damaged unless shelter is provided or particular agreements made. It was besides noted that Auschwitz is presently in the procedure of eroding, the giantism of flora for illustration is traveling out of manus and it truly needs a direction plan more than a Restoration plan to maintain it in perfect order. Vandalism was besides noted as a touristry direction issue to take into consideration. Finally it was noted that civilization direction is besides really of import and tourers must be educated to act in a certain manner when sing peculiar sites to avoid struggle. Site directors should seek authorities financess or even enforce a little entryway fee to be able to go on the preservation procedure.
Back to: Example Essays
Auschwitz ( 2003 )Memorial and Museum: Auschwitz- Birkenau, Avaialble from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.auschwitz-muzeum.oswiecim.pl/html/eng/start/
Dann, G. M.S. and Seaton, A.V. ( 2001 )Slavery, Contested Heritage and Thanatourism, Birmingham: The Haworth Hospitality Press
Di Sante, T. ( 2003 )Why we ‘re drawn to the roots of panic, 06 Sep. , The Times
Foley, M. , Lennon, J. and Maxwell, G. ( 1997 )Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure Management: Issues in Strategy and Culture, London: Cassell
Howie, F. ( 2003 )Pull offing the Tourist Finish, London: Continuum
Lennon, J. ( 2004 )Seminar on dark touristry, 13 Aug. , Issue 2627, Travel Trade Gazette in the Times, 20 Aug, p 4
Lennon, J. and Foley, M. ( 2004 )Dark Tourism, London: Thomson
McCormick, M. ( 2004 )Land Zero and the phenomena of dark touristry, Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.pilotguides.com/destination_guide/north_america/new_york/ground_zero.php
The Guardian ( 2004 )Postcard from Hell, 18 Oct, p1-4
Theobald, W. ( 1994 )Global touristry: the following decennary, Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann
Urry, J. ( 1991 )The Tourist Gaze, London: Sage
Yale, P. ( 2004 )From Tourist Attractions to Heritage Tourism,3rded. , Elm
Young, J.E. ( 1993 )The Texture of Memory: Holocaust Memorials and Meaning, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press
Boniface, P. ( 2001 )Dynamic touristry, Channel View Publications
Boniface, P. and Fowler, P.J. ( 1993 )Heritage and Tourism in the planetary small town, London: Routledge
Herbert, D.T. ( 1995 )Heritage, Tourism and Society, Pinter
Uzzell, D. ( 1989 )Heritage Interpretation, London: Belhaven Press
Yale, P. ( 1991 )From Tourist Attractions to Heritage Tourism, Elm Publications