Tourism, in general, can be defined as travel for leisure and pleasance or concern intents. It is touring activities done by tourers. Tourists is defined as people who travel and stay in topographic points outside their usual environment for more than twenty four hours and non more than one back-to-back twelvemonth of leisure, concern and other intents non related to the exercising of an activity remunerated from within the topographic point visited. ( World Tourism Organization, 1995 ) .

Recession touristry is identified by American enterpriser Matt Landau during 2007 economic down bend. It is defined by low cost but high value experience of retreats. Domestic touristry was dining during the recession since British tourists are attracted by low cost high value domestic touristry.

Dark touristry is identified by Lennon and Foley in twelvemonth 2000. Dark touristry involves sing to the site where at hand danger, agony and even decease are present. Due to the nature of it, dark touristry raises several inquiries: should these topographic points be allowed for tourers, if so who is responsible for their safety? Should the nature of promotion be involved? However dark touristry is still attracted by wonder, escapade or even amusement. It is still a niche market. Particularly in Burma, where ill-famed military government governs the state and where cultural insurgences fight with the armed forces for democracy and their ain liberty, topographic points where there are frequently clangs between Burmese military and insurgence groups are attracted to dark touristry. From BBC, Tropic of Cancer, Simon Reeve took on a hazardous secret journey into Burma, where western journalists are out. During the trip from Bangladesh to Burma, Simon went to western portion of Burma boundary line, Chin land, and tripped into distant tribal small town. He states, “ It was an extraordinary journey ” ( BBC, tropic of malignant neoplastic disease, 2010 )

Country profile of Myanmar ( Burma )

Myanmar once known as Burma is place to over 50 million people with different ethnics and is the largest state in Southeast Asia. It is besides a member province of Association of South East Asiatic Nations ( ASEAN ) . In the northwest, it portions the boundary line with Bangladesh and India. To the North, it borders with Tibet and to the nor’-east Yunnan of China. To the sou’-east, it is surrounded by Laos and Thailand. The coastline stretches along the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea to the sou’-west and the South.

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The bulk of the land lies between the tropic of malignant neoplastic disease and the equator. It has three different seasons viz. summer, raining and cold season. Average temperature falls between 21’C and 32’C while northern parts will snow during winter. About half of the state land is covered by the tropical wood. Teaks are one of most valuable assets of the state. Other trees range from bamboo, gum elastic, banian, rose chestnut, Rhizophora mangle, betel thenar, oak, pine and assorted rhododendrons to coconut workss. Jungle animate beings such as tiger and leopard can be seen lightly. Other animate beings include wild American bison, elephant, wild Sus scrofas, cervid, antelope and such. Some of them are sometimes tamed, trained and bred for usage as work force. Many different sorts of birds such as parrot, bird of Juno, sup, crows, pigeon, paddy birds and more can be seen throughout the countrysides.

The official faith is Buddha and the state ‘s civilization is based on Buddhism assorted with local belief. Burma gained independency from British in 1948. About two decennaries following the independency, democratic opinion was ended in 1962 when General Ne Win came into power. This resulted in Ethnics taking armed and fought against the military authorities. At present, the state is under control of State Peace and Development Council ( SPDC ) led by military government. Although National League for Democracy ( NLD ) led by Aung San Su Kyi had landslide triumph over the authorities during free elections in 1990, governing junta declared it nothingness and refused to step down.

Rangoon ( besides known as Rangoon ) was known to be the capital metropolis of Burma until in 2006, when General Than Shwe moved to a topographic point near Pyinmana metropolis and officially announced the new capital Naypyidaw.

Myanmar is besides ill-famed for systematic human right maltreatment. Peoples at the distant topographic point are frequently forced to function as porters for the military activities. Even though there is no indicant to conscript child, kid soldiers are normally seen in stray topographic points.

Geographically, the state is subdivided into seven provinces and seven divisions and they are named harmonizing to the cultural bulk to the country. The state is rich in footings of natural resource. Recent survey shows that U is being explored in the northern portion of Burma

Reasons people should see to Burma ( about 500 words )

The beauty of the land stretches out across the state. In the North, the natural scene with mountains covered by snow, Indawgyi lake wildlife sanctuary located in Kachin State place to really rare species such as Grey lad Geese, Purple Swamp biddy, Oriental Darter, Inlay lake located in Shan State holding whole small towns in the center of the lake with drifting farm, drifting markets and fishermen standing in one pes on their wooden boat rowing with the other leg, and legion breath taking sight scenes are the attractive force and extraordinary experience that one would acquire.

In Yangon, former capital metropolis, there is a Shwedagon Pagoda, which is the oldest and the biggest aureate memorial in the whole universe. These gold are added by 100s of 1000s of donators, many male monarchs, Queenss and people of Burma throughout history from clip to clip.

The Great Mingun Bell, one of the universe ‘s three largest bells, is located in Mingun pagoda near the metropolis of Sagaing. It is about 13 pess tall and weighs about 200 dozenss. The experience of holding seen and peal this bell would be similar to that of holding been on the Great Wall of China, which both proves the labor of work forces in the history.

Another admiration of Burma is the Kyaikhtiyo Pagoda, which sustains the Pagoda on top of the hill stone at the really border of the drop. Although there were some temblors happened, it survived until today.

There is more, Bagan Temples and Pagodas are besides semisynthetic admirations of the state. This lists the 17th of the World ‘s top 100 Wonders of Howard Hillman while Shwedagon Stupa stays at 72.

Despite the natural beauty, historical metropolis, semisynthetic admirations and more, people are nice and friendly and local traditional nutrient are nowhere else can be found even some culinary art and formula are acquiring nonextant. The fact and information reference in this subdivision are the ground why people should see the state. The best clip to see Burma is between October and February when the clime is cold. The remainder of the twelvemonth is warm and it has heavy rain during raining season.

Tourism in Burma

Burma has the great chances and attractive forces to the tourers around the universe in many Fieldss, touristry in the state still needs immense development. With tonss of limitation to the foreign visitants, chiefly on democracy political motion, the authorities has been developing touristry in the state. Although many private administrations exist supplying a broad scope of tourers attractive force activities, it could non perforate the international markets of touristry due to limitations imposed by the authorities.

Year 1996 was pictured as a visit Myanmar twelvemonth. However, NLD party the resistance leader Aung San Suu Kyi appealed the international tourers to non see Burma. Since the economic benefit from touristry would let the military to quash the resistance party and cultural insurgences, she called to boycott touristry in Burma. This had whatsoever really small or no impact on the armed forces ‘s stance. She now believes that “ the little graduated table, responsible touristry can make more benefits than injury. So long as tourers are to the full cognizant of the state of affairs and take stairss to maximize their positive impact and understate the negatives. ” ( Voice of Burma, Tourism policy )

As for tourers who wish to see dark touristry in Burma in order to raise international consciousness, touristry nowadayss really rare chances. Majority of the topographic points are provided limited entree to the tourers with really tight control from the authorities between the foreign visitants and ordinary local people. In add-on, people are non meant to speak about political relations with aliens particularly the democracy motion. Imprisonment could ensue for such talk. On the other manus, touristry could salvage the alone planet of Burma.

Macro Analysis ( about 2500 words )


Tourism in Burma is chiefly affected by current political state of affairs, which creates tonss of instability between the authorities and ethnics within the state. Due to this, dark touristry is popular chase for international journalists. Some people like to see to the topographic points where there are danger and limitation non because they have nil else to make but because they are so funny and adventuresome to hold such experience. At the clip of this authorship, the deadline for the credence of the Border Guard Force ( BGF ) programme is on 28 April 2010. The tenseness between cultural insurgences and military government additions, war is looming, ceasefire groups, National Democratic Alliance Army ( NDAA ) , Kachin Independence Army ( KIA ) , Shan State Army ( SAA ) and United Wa State Army ( UWSA ) , are fixing in their ain manner to contend and defence against the military assault from Burmese ground forces. This is due to the BGF programme, which renders all the ceasefire groups to be controlled by the Burmese junta. Majority cultural ground forcess oppose it.

Myanmar Government is now fixing for the extroverted general elections to be held in 2010. Some top members from the ground forces are vacating to take part as civilians in forthcoming election. Mark Farmaner, the manager of the Burma Campaign UK, stated, “ They will be have oning suits instead than uniforms, but it ‘s merely the first phase in the passage from a military absolutism to a civilian absolutism ” . He besides mentioned that the new fundamental law would guarantee that a national defense mechanism and security council led by military junta have the existent power and parliament would be nil more than the frontend image for the international community while the cardinal ministries would be under the control of the armed forces. The European Council issued a statement on Burma showing “ serious concerns that elections jurisprudence as published in early March do non supply for free and just elections ” ( Guardian, April 2010 ) .

Britain is besides endorsing to bear down military leaders over war offenses and offenses against humanity. This move is to supercharge the junta to take for the echt democratic and diplomatic reforms. A British functionary said, “ Our figure one aim is to increase force per unit area on the government to clear up the election regulations and hold free and just elections, ” ( Guardian, March 26, 2010 )

With this sort of misdirection, touristry would still be harm. As effects of election, it is expected that people flying to neighbour states such as Thailand and are likely to increase. Recent bomb onslaught in former capital metropolis Yangon during H2O festival ( Burmese New Year ) killed several people and injured many. In the same hebdomad, a series of bomb blasts in Kachin State Myitsone hydroelectric power works building pace. Some Chinese workers were killed and injured in the event. These sorts of event make public live in fright and other signifier of systematic misdemeanor homo right threatens the state touristry industry to turn.

Before 1998, foreign visitants are allowed to remain in with the local household as invitees. However, due to the alteration in authorities policies, which dislike the political intervention from different state, foreign visitants must remain in a hotel during their visit. This in bend additions gross for the authorities from foreign state to advance its military activities. Companies, which operate touristry such as Andaman nine, Andrew Brock Ltd, Asiana, Audley Travel Ltd, Bales Worldwide Holidays, Bamboo Travel Ltd, BBC Worldwide and more, are blacklisted for the political ground.


Economically touristry boosts the income of the state, which turns out to be the income of absolutism in Burma. Burma run UK implies touristry in Burma as “ the cost of a vacation could be person ‘s life ” ( Burma run UK, 2002 ) . Despite the copiousness of natural resources, due to the misdirection, isolation and weak economic policies, compared to neighbors state Myanmar is still non doing the most of its economic strength. Having the impact of planetary economic crisis, state of affairs got worse since twelvemonth 2007. GDP increased in twelvemonth 2009 mostly due to enlargement of gas exportation. Because of the deficiency of proper control of economic system, this growing may be expected to fall shortly. Harmonizing to 2010 index of economic freedom, Burma scores 36.7, rendering the 5th worst economic system and rank 40th out of 41 states in the Asia-Pacific part. Inflation was mounting up between twelvemonth 2006 and 2008. It is serious issues for the economic system. However, it slows down a spot in 2009. This could be because of the recovery from the Nargis cyclone occurred in May 2008. Government chiefly spent its income on military enlargement instead than bettering public service and economic sciences of the state ( Index of Economic Freedom, 2010 ) .

Dr Tint Swe, a member of the National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma ( NCGUB ) states that merchandising with China, India and Southeast Asiatic states could non salvage Burma out of the least developed state ( LDC ) position even after 20 old ages. Harmonizing to 2005 UNDP, study one tierce of the population strive below the line of poorness. 30 percent addition on the monetary value of rice and rising prices put heavy load of the state economic system. However the armed forces is still rich plenty to in secret construct the belowground tunnels in Naypyidaw by North Korean aid.

Many states such as the European Union, Canada and the United provinces have enforced countenance on investing and trading with Burma. Most of these states would non make import and export with Burma. The chief merchandise of the state is rice. However, the deficiency of skilled in modern engineering delays the rice production, which in bend, obstructs the growing of economic system. Some other merchandises such as jade, ruby, sapphire, pearls and gold attract aliens with different state. Chinese are chiefly interested in jade and gold excavation and they are the biggest purchaser in the field. Thailand purchases the bulk of the state ‘s treasures such as ruby and bluish sapphire. Even though there is much attractive force to the international tourers instead than tourers from neighbour states, many European jewelry companies such as Cartier, Bulgari and more renounce to import these treasures due to distressing conditions of the forced labor. Another facet is that about all the net incomes is merely good to military since there are merely a few excavation owned by private companies. In development wise, the economic system of Burma need betterment to set up proper foundation of touristry in the state.


Tourism in Burma is besides influenced by societal factors. Sing demographics of the state, 67 per centum of the population are age between 15 and 64. This has increased the handiness of human labor, nevertheless the to work in a touristry industry, workers must fluently talk international linguistic communication chiefly English while other linguistic communications such as Gallic, Spanish, Lusitanian and more are every bit of import as others. Yet once more, this instruction sector is severely affected by today instruction system of the state. Before 1990s, anyone who is high school alumnus can pass on in English good. This is once more ruined by altering the class content of the instruction to a lower degree. GCSE O degree and A degree are non allowed to learn in private instruction Centre openly while stuffs to experiment for Chemistry, Physics and Biology such are banned to import, merely rich household can afford such class with private coachs at place. Even though it is available worldwide from British instruction system much are restricted by the authorities. In the long tally, this has negative major impact non merely in the touristry industry but besides other concern sectors.

Another facet to look at is the cultural engagement in the industry. Myanmar is culturally diverse state. This could be really interesting facts for the tourers who would see the state. Unfortunately, this is besides affected by military activities such as cultural cleaning and burmanization policies. Kachin manau festival to observe in 2010 is delayed by non giving permission to utilize manau cultural symbol and many store promenade are prohibited to function nutrient to the visitants. This festival could besides be really rare experience to the foreign visitants. Merely a few got at that place. Burma News International stated, foreign visitants were closely watched by security agents of the Burmese opinion junta. Participants, occupants of Myitkyina said deploying so many military personnels in the festival like this was pathetic while Kachin armed groups has ceasefire understandings with the junta ( Burma News International, 2009 ) . Due to this many aliens felt discourage to see such cultural activities.

In some portion of the state, ain local linguistic communication is non allowed to talk. Pon Nya Mon, Chairman of Mon land Restoration Council, mentioned that he had to pay some punishment fees for talking Mon linguistic communication in his first class in school in Mon province ( Burma Library, The state: Cultural cleaning ) .

Heath attention services in the state are by and large free or cheap. However, this is corrupted by the state of affairs ; one has to pay hospital workers in the signifier of present or contribution to acquire better health care service. The ill-famed deaths are malaria, TB, dysentery, diarrhea and no exclusion to Aids. Most of the state wellness attention system are funded by international beginnings. Harmonizing to a study by research workers from the University of California, Berkeley and Johns Hopkins University, authorities spends merely approximately 3 per centum on wellness attention yearly but spends 40 per centum on the military ( USA Today, 2007 ) .

For the leisure and pleasance activities to carry foreign visitants, Chaung Tha and Ngapali Beaches are the topographic point for those who like peace, tranquility and being off from the crowds. Staying at that place for a piece could be a great experience but acquiring at that place could turn out to be a incubus. Chaung Tha is located in approximately 154 stat mis from Yangon and takes about 5 hours in a attention to acquire at that place. However roads are capable to care work. This once more cause the major issues on transit system that affects the touristry activities. Ngapali is located in Arakan State and easy reached by flight which takes about 45 proceedingss from Yangon. Therefore international visitants are non acquiring every bit much as comfort as the media advertizement. They do non acquire what they paid for.

Therefore, one can presume that military government is the greatest menace to the economic development and prosperity of the state.


In every concern today, engineering is the nucleus constituent to maintain the concern up and running and touristry is no exclusion. To acquire to the following degree of success, one should implement the cutting border new engineering on the industry they operate. Since there are many technological solutions to the know issues of many concern scenario, the organisation will profit from it.

The incorporation of engineering will hold both positive and negative impact on a travel and touristry administration. In one manus, the technological solution can increase productiveness and efficiency. On the other manus, it can connote excess costs such as staff preparation costs, costs to upgrade current system and more. Some travel technological solution offers practical touristry with practical circuit engineerings. Travel engineering evolves from computing machine reserve system ( CRS ) of the air hoses system. In these yearss, more are incorporated into it including broader touristry, cordial reception direction and more.

In Burma, authorities initiated cyber small town undertaking in twelvemonth 2004. This undertaking is merely to enable entree to the cyberspace in rural countries. Most of the metropolis, province metropolis and small towns are accessible to internet. The state has fibre anchor connexion associating to all of the major metropolis. The international fiber ocular links to Thailand and India are completed in 2009. The technological development in Burma is catching up with the neighbouring state. Majority of the ICT Industry Development are done in cooperation with Japan and besides ICT legal model is helped by Japan. Japan provide stuffs and audience services. However Technology Review published by MIT stated that Burmese people have entree to a aggressively limited, crudely out of use version of cyberspace like North Korea. All the cyberspace content and use are to a great extent censored by the authorities chiefly on political one which renders no freedom in the usage of cyberspace. Despite the connexion are really slow, web mails such as yokel, hotmail are banned in the state. Merely authorization in the community has entree to those web sites. Due to heavy limitation on the use of cyberspace, touristry engineering development is severely affected in a manner that makes people to acquire out of touch with the cutting border engineering.

Since engineering gives rise to two things: new merchandises and new procedure, touristry has to accommodate to new procedure, such as information processing, electronic dealing, unafraid payment over the cyberspace. This new procedures are dragged by the limitation on authorities policies toward internet use.

In banking sector, Burma does non hold hard currency machine that links up to international fiscal establishment. Local hard currency machines, which do non accept Visa or Master Card, are merely for domestic currency. Visitor has to interchange their dollars into Myanmar FEC, which stands for Foreign Exchange Current. One FEC is tantamount to one US dollar.

Tourist information system, which chiefly depends on informations from the cyberspace, renders useless due to the firewall controlled by the military government. Guardian News mentioned, “ Burma ‘s military government has reluctantly dipped a toe in the Cyber Sea, but for most of the state ‘s population having a modem without permission means 15 old ages in gaol ” (, July 22, 2003 ) . Peoples who visit antigovernment web site can be put behind the saloon. “ Of states worldwide, Burma and North Korea are together at the far terminal of the graduated table of internet repression, ” Shanthi Kalathil, writer of the book “ Open Networks, Closed Regimes, ” stated in a telephone interview from Washington.

Another influence on the technological facets of touristry in Burma is the new bar-coded passport. This is a planetary impact, which is the demand as portion of the united state. The debut of this alteration will enormously impact touristry in Burma. Since visa are issued based on the single background, all or most of the journalists around the universe will unfit for the entry visa to Burma due to unwillingness to expose the inland human right maltreatment to foreign state. Dan Rivers, one of the CNN newsman, was blacklisted and deported from Myanmar. When he was non known to military authorities, he was let in, in 2007. When the military authorities found out who he was, what he was working for, he was blacklisted and he was sent back along with the “ Deportee ” cast on his passport ( CNN Correspondent, Dan Rivers, March 28, 2010 ) . This event implies that the future visitants are easy identified with the saloon codification on their passport and the entry to the state as a tourer can acquire rejected easy.

Technological development proves to be really effectual to develop touristry industry in Burma, at the same clip, the drawback is the military swayer has the control to discourage the flourishing industry of touristry.

Decision ( about 500 words )

As tourers touring the state within the zone allowed is peaceable and will hold really low opportunity of meeting any sort of instability, systematic misdemeanor of human right or police ferociousness against the general populace. Even though the state is following to some of the top 10 most visited states such as Thailand, China and Malaysia by international visitants, the growing of touristry industry is hindered by the misdirection of the leader of the state. Without the proper policies on economic growing of the state, while policies are on the oral cavity of the authorization, touristry in Burma is trickled to the criterion of neighboring states such as China, Thailand, Lao, Singapore and Vietnam. Tourism is still a turning sector of the Myanmar economic system.

Numerous air hoses serves internationally via direct flights to Burma and many private domestic air hoses flies within the state and Cruise ship traveling back and Forth from Yangon to Mandalay are besides available for inter-state vacation sail. Domestically touristry activities exists nevertheless internationally it seems to be non-existence to the outside universe. During the self-research by questionnaire, interview and inquiring people in the Oxford Circus in London obtained the undermentioned findings.

Fifty out of 50s have ne’er been visited to Burma.

Thirty out of 50 claims to cognize the name of Burma. Some looked baffled when inquiring if they knew Myanmar.

Ten out of 50 says they would take to see the state during their vacation. This may be due to courtesy for the interviewer. Fifteen out of 50s would non take to see Burma due to ill-famed military government and for their ain safety. The remainder are non certain whether they should pick Burma for their vacation. Some asked, “ Why would I pass my vacation ” ?

Amazingly, merely one or two knows inside informations about the state. Most people know the baronial peace prizewinner, Aung San Su Kyi in general. Some people wrongly assume that she is the premier curate of the state.

No 1 could name the best topographic point to see in Burma.

Peoples do non cognize what clip is the best clip to see Burma.

No 1 like the state to be run by military junta, hence reject the referendum adopted by military swayers.

Not many people know the state has diverse ethnics.

Not many people know bulk moralss are taking weaponries and contending against Burmese ground forces.

No 1 expect the state has snow in winter in the northern portion of Burma. Most expect hot like snake pit.

The inquiries compiled are as follow.

Dou you know the state called Myanmar or Burma?

State me what you know of Myanmar.

Have you of all time been to Burma?

If non, would you see Burma for your vacation?

List the topographic point you would see in Burma on your vacation.

What do you believe is the best clip to see Burma?

Would you like your state run by the military junta? Would you hold the referendum adopted by such dictator?

Make you cognize Burma is ethnically diverse?

Name some ethnics you know of in Burma.

Make you cognize ethnics are contending against Burmese military junta?

Name some moralss army you know of in Burma.

Do you anticipate snow in Burma?

When did Burma addition independency from British?

Make you cognize a topographic point called Bagan?

Name the three biggest bells in the universe.

Have you of all time seen people rowing boat with one of their leg?

Based on the research done, it shows that people do non cognize they could of all time see to Burma and there are such touristry activities for international visitant. However due to military swayers and worrying about their ain safety, they would non believe it is a good topographic point to see even though Bagan and Shwedagon Stupa are on top 100 Wonders of the universe by Howard Hillman. To reason, Burma touristry is chiefly affected by its political state of affairs despite it has possible to immerse in the sector. Due to the closed-door system of the government, petition made by political captive, Aung San Su Kyi and united state countenance on Burma, to the foreigner the touristry is about non-existent.


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