Healthy people create a healthy society. It is considered that unwellness, poorness and ignorance are three chief enemies that stand against the advancement or the development of any society. The authorities of any society put the wellness of its people foremost, as a precedence because people will bring forth more wealth if they are healthy. World Health Organization ( WHO ) has stated in its study that liver diseases are distributing quickly in both developed and developing states. ( Dusheiko, 1998 ) .
Doctors in Pakistan are increasingly more concerned that the recycle of panpipes and usage of blood without testing could magnify an addition in instances of hepatitis.
1.1 Importance of liver:
The liver is the largest, heaviest and one of the most of import internal variety meats. Dark red in colour, it weighs 1-1.5 kilogram and is located behind the lower right portion of your ribs. It shops vitamins, sugars, fats and other foods from the nutrient you eat and so releases them to the organic structure when needed. It besides builds basic chemicals that your organic structure needs to remain healthy. Last but non least ; it removes waste merchandises, harmful bacteriums and toxic chemicals from your blood. In other words – it is the human dynamo, recycling, and disposal works of the organic structure. Life is non possible without the liver.
There are at least five signifiers of hepatitis known to scientists and all of them cause redness, or swelling, of the liver. Doctors call the different signifiers hepatitis A, B, C, D and E. Each signifier of the disease is contracted by human in different ways and frequently exhibits alone symptoms. ( Gallagher, 2005 ) . The development of icterus is a characteristic component of liver disease ; merely blood trial can right name the hepatitis. ( Lemon, 1994, Stapleton and Lemon, 1994 ) .
It is predicted that hepatitis has infected one million millions of people. Out of them more than 350 million are untreatable. However, liver diseases are evitable but ill understood ( Ahmed,1999 ) .
Harmonizing to a study conducted by some pupils of rural sociology in Agriculture University Faisalabad in 2004 in all 78.8 per centum of the respondents of Faisalabad were non have consciousness of Hepatitis, whereas 21.2 per centum of respondents were cognizant of Hepatitis. Most of the respondents ( 67.5 per centum ) had no cognition about beginning of transmittal of Hepatitis, whereas 32.5 per centum of them had knowledge about beginning of transmittal. This present survey showed that blood transfusion was a major hazard factor in transmittal of virus.
1.2.1 Hepatitis A:
Type A Hepatitis is one of the oldest diseases those are known to human existences. It is a ego limited disease which consequences in fluminant hepatitis and the proportion of decease by this disease is a really little figure of patients. Yet, it is a considerable cause of anguish and socio-economic wants in many countries of the universe. ( Hollinger and Ticehurst, 1996 ) .
Hepatitis A virus ( HAV ) is normally transmitted by the faecal-oral path. ( lemon, 1997, Stapleton, 1995 ) . Infections occur in early life, in the countries where cleanliness is hapless and living conditions are crammed full.
Hepatitis A is a viral disease, and antibiotics are non valuable in the intervention of the infection. Therapy can merely be helpful and intended at keeping comfort and sufficient nutritionary balance. Recovery without therapy is by and large the regulation. ( Hollinger and Ticehurst, 1996 ) . The rate in males is about 20 % higher than in females. ( Previsani and Lavanchy 2004 ) . Risk factors of hepatitis A remain unknown in about 50 % of instances. ( Koff 1998 ) .
1.2.2 Hepatitis Bacillus:
Hepatitis B is a serious and common infection liver disease. It is impacting 1000000s of people throughout the universe. ( Previsani and Lavanchy 2004 ) .
The development of chronic hepatic inadequacy, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma ( HCC ) are included in the terrible pathological effects of relentless HBV infection. In add-on, the disease can be transmitted by HBV for many old ages. The Infection of this disease occurs really often in early childhood and largely leads to the chronic bearer province.
Chronic hepatitis B is an infection with a varied nature history, has been found most often in Asia-Pacific part ( Fattovich, 2003 ) . In Pakistan, the prevalence of hepatitis B virus ( HBV ) in normal persons has varied in assorted parts. Three per centum prevalence was noted in normal persons of Karachi ( Qasmi et al. 2000 ) .
There are over 4 million sensitive clinical instances of HBV every twelvemonth, and out of which 25 % are bearers. One million people die because of chronic active hepatitis and cirrhosis of primary liver malignant neoplastic disease in a twelvemonth. Hepatitis B is besides called serum hepatitis, type B hepatitis, or homologous serum icterus. ( Previsani and Lavanchy 2004 ) .
While retroflexing in hepatocytes, the HBV interferes with the maps of the liver. Then the immune system is activated to do a specific reaction to contend and perchance extinguish the infective agent. As a consequence of pathological harm, the liver becomes swollen.
By visual aspect, one should non judge the septic people because most septic people look wholly healthy and do non hold any acute sings of disease, nevertheless may be extremely infective.
1.2.3 Hepatitis C:
Unlike other signifiers of hepatitis, HCV is hard for the immune system to over come, and so the disease can do serious, long term liver harm, including cirrhosis, liver malignant neoplastic disease, and even unrecorded failure- all three of which can be fatal. ( Jenkins, 2000 ) .
HCV is identified by Choo ( Choo et al, 1989 ) . It is a quickly emerging as a major wellness job in developing states including Pakistan.
Most people infected with HCV have no symptoms of hepatitis. They by and large stay unmindful that they have infection during the first 10 to 20 old ages of virus unless they have blood trial. As a consequence of deceasing liver cells or escape of these enzymes, these people will by and large be found that they have some lifts of liver enzymes in their blood. ( Seeff, 1995 ) .
Super infection of hepatitis C with hepatitis A may do fulminate liver failure, ace infection of hepatitis C with hepatitis B increases the rate of patterned advance of liver disease. Due to the shared hazard factors among people geting Hepatitis A, B and C, and the serious effects of ace infections, NIH ( National Institute of Hepatitis, USA ) .Veterans Health Administration have recommended that all current chronic hepatitis C patients that have non shown unsusceptibility to Hepatitis A or B be vaccinated.
The president of Pakistan Medical Association, Dr Umar Ayub Khan said that harmonizing to a unsmooth estimation, approximately 15.6 % of the population is infected with hepatitis. The individuals who visited public infirmaries, about three million have hepatitis B or C. The figure might be catastrophic if the whole population was screened.
1.2.4 Hepatitis D:
Hepatitis delta ( D ) virus is a faulty virus in that it can non retroflex without the assistance of another virus, the hepatitis B virus. Despite this demand, it is non peculiarly prevailing in South-East Asia, a major centre of hepatitis B infection. Hepatitis D and B carbon monoxide infection in the same person does non take to a much higher incidence of ague or chronic liver disease than does infection with hepatitis B virus entirely. By contrast, hepatitis D virus infection of a individual antecedently infected with B virus is frequently correlated with acute disease followed cirrhosis of the liver. ( Edward et al, 2008 ) .
1.2.5 Hepatitis Tocopherol:
Like hepatitis A virus, hepatitis E virus is spread by contaminated H2O and perchance by nutrient. It is found throughout the universe and has caused important epidemics in India and Russia through jobs with imbibing H2O. The disease caused by this virus is normally mild. Recovery from acute infection is by and large complete and there is no grounds of chronic infection following the acute stage. ( Edward et al, 2008 ) .
1.3 Restrictions of the Survey:
This survey was started with the aim to happen out the hazard factors of five types of hepatitis those are hepatitis A, B, C, D and E. However, during the study it was found that hepatitis A is a really minor disease and 90 % of the patients do non necessitate any type of intervention and will be all right after taking proper remainder or by minor intervention. Hepatitis D can merely develop in the presence hepatitis B. In Pakistan instances of Hepatitis D and E are really rare. During two months study period, no patient of hepatitis A, D and E admitted in the DHQ infirmary. Due to this ground the range of the survey was changed and now. I data about the hepatitis B and C patients and 3rd class is the class of healthy individuals has been analyzed.
The aim of this thesis is to analyze the hazard factors of hepatitis which is a liver disease. In this survey the hazard factors of two types of hepatitis ( B, and C ) are studied by taking information of hepatitis patients from liver centre of DHQ infirmary Faisalabad admitted during February and March 2009. A study of patients in DHQ during these two months was conducted to acquire informations on the factors which were expected to be the hazard factors. This survey will make consciousness among people and supply aid to the authorities policy shaper, decision makers and research workers with respect to command of the prevalence of Hepatitis and assist in preparation of policies for betterment in the wellness section to the appropriate information and intervention conformity in the visible radiation of statistical consequences of this survey.
From statistical point of position the parametric and non parametric categorization techniques among the available one & A ; acirc ; ˆ™s to analyze categorical dependant variable informations are explored and the technique which gives better categorization is recommended. The available techniques, those were applied to this information set, were logistic arrested development and categorization trees. Logistic arrested development is a parametric technique and categorization trees are non parametric techniques. The categorization tree has three turning methods CART ( Classification and Regression Tree, CHAID ( Chi Square Automatic Interaction Detection ) and QUEST ( Quick Unbiased Efficient Statistical Tree ) . A comparing among logistic arrested development, CHAID, CART and QUEST is made. Statistical belongingss of these techniques are evaluated to organize the footing of recommendations.
1.5 Need of the Survey:
Statistically the aim of this survey is to compare the parametric and non parametric categorization techniques in instance when the dependant variable has more than two classs and all the forecasters are categorical. In the literature, the comparing of parametric and non parametric categorization techniques can be found but it is merely done foremost for the binary dependant variable and secondly in all old surveies forecasters are all uninterrupted or a mixture of uninterrupted and categorical variables. In this survey all the forecasters are categorical and dependent variable has three classs. So the comparing is made in instance when the dependant variable has three classs and all the forecasters are categorical.