The little bowel is the lone portion of the GI piece of land that is indispensable for life. It serves a neuroendocrine map, a digestive map ( propulsion, blending and soaking up of nutrient ) , and a secretory map. The liver, gall bladder and pancreas are accessary variety meats of the digestive system that is closely associated with the little bowel. The villous surface improves soaking up by increasing the overall surface country. In add-on to soaking up foods, it is responsible for most H2O resorption in the GI piece of land ( Edward, 1998 ) .

The little bowel is made up of three sections, which form a transition from tummy ( the gap between tummy and little bowel is called the pylorus ) to big bowel. It is duodenum, jejunum and ileum. The duodenum is this short subdivision is the portion of the little bowel that takes in semi digested from tummy through the pylorus and continues the digestion procedure. The duodenum besides uses gall from the gall bladder, liver and pancreas to assist digest nutrient. The jejunum is the in-between subdivision of the little bowel carries nutrient through quickly, with wave-like musculus contractions, towards the ileum. The last section is ileum. The ileum is the longest portion of little bowel. It is where most of the foods from nutrient are absorbed before emptying into the big bowel ( UPMC, 2010 ) .

By the clip nutrient ranges little bowel, it has already been broken up and mashed into liquid by tummy. Each twenty-four hours, little bowel receives between one and three gallons ( or six to twelve litres ) of this liquid. The little bowel carries out most of the digestive procedure, absorbing about all of the foods get from nutrients into blood stream. The walls of the little bowel make digestive juices or enzymes that work together with enzymes from the liver and pancreas to make this. Although the little bowel is narrower than the big bowel, it is really the longest subdivision of the digestive tubing, mensurating about 22 pess ( or seven metres ) on norm, or three-and-a-half times the length of organic structure ( UPMC, 2010 ) .

1.2 Large Intestine

Figure 2: Large Intestine ( A.D.A.M. , 2012 )

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The big bowel is larger in diameter than the little bowel. It begins at the ileocecal junction, where the ileum enters the big bowel and ends at the anus. The big bowel consists of the colon, rectum and anal canal. Its primary map is to release mucin and signifier stool for elimination. It reabsorbs H2O and electrolytes but to a much lesser extent than the little bowel. It does non hold sodium cotransport system ( Edward, 1998 ) . Unlike little bowel, the big bowel produces no digestive enzymes.

The wall of the big bowel has the same types of tissue that are found in other parts of the digestive piece of land but there are some separating features. The mucous membrane has a big figure of goblet cells but does non hold any villi. The longitudinal musculus bed, although present, is uncomplete. The longitudinal musculus is limited to three territory sets, called taenia coli that run the full length of the colon ( National Cancer Institute, 2012 ) .

The rectum continues from the sigmoid colon to the anal canal and has a thick muscular bed. It follows the curvature of the sacrum and is steadfastly attached to it by connective tissue. The rectum and ends approximately 5 centimeters below the tip of the tail bone at the beginning of the anal canal. The last 2 to 3 centimeter of the digestive piece of land is the anal canal, which continues from the rectum and opens to the exterior at the anus. The mucous membrane of the rectum is folded to organize longitudinal anal columns. The smooth musculus bed is thick and forms the internal anal sphincter at the superior terminal of the anal canal ( National Cancer Institute, 2012 ) .

1.3 Intestinal Obstruction

Figure 3: Intestinal Obstruction ( A.D.A.M. , 2012 )

Intestinal obstructor, besides called intestinal obstruction ( from the Greek eilo, intending to turn over up ) ( Ivan, 1996 ) . Intestinal obstructor is refers to a deficiency of motion of the enteric contents through the bowel. Because of its smaller lms, obstructors are more common and occur more quickly in little bowel, but they can happen in big bowel as good. Depending on the cause and location, obstructor may attest as an ague job or a bit by bit developing state of affairs. For illustration, distortion of the bowel could do sudden entire obstructor, whereas a tumour leads to progressive obstructor ( Barbara, 2002 ) .

Obstruction of the bowel causes the intestine to go vulnerable to ischemia. The enteric mucosal barrier can be damaged, leting enteric bacteriums to occupy the enteric wall and doing unstable exudate, which leads to hypovolemic and desiccation. About 7L of unstable per twenty-four hours is secreted into the little bowel and tummy and normally reabsorbed. During obstructor, fluid accumulates, doing abdominal dilatation and force per unit area on the mucosal wall, which can take to peritonitis and perforation ( Unbound Medicine, 2011 ) .

Intestinal obstructor is most common on aged persons, due to the higher incidence of tumor and other causative diseases in this population. In newborns, enteric obstructor may be caused by imperforate anus or other anatomic abnormalcies. Obstruction may besides be secondary to meconium intestinal obstruction. In pediatric population, Hirschsprung disease can resemble enteric obstructor ( Christy, 2011 ) .

Intestinal obstructor occurs in two signifiers. Mechanical obstructors are those ensuing from tumour, adhesions, hernias or other touchable obstructors. Functional, or undynamic, obstructors result from neurologic damage, such as spinal cord hurt or deficiency of propulsion in the bowel and are frequently referred to as paralytic intestinal obstruction. Adynamic or paralytic intestinal obstructions normally related to redness or the break of excitation ( Barbara, 2002 ) .


Intestinal obstructor can be caused by many different things. It occurs in two basic types which is mechanical obstructor and paralytic intestinal obstruction. Functional obstructor or paralytic intestinal obstruction is one of the major causes of the enteric obstructor in babies and kids. It is common in the undermentioned state of affairss:

after abdominal surgery, in which the effects of the anaesthetic combined with redness or ischaemia in the operative country interfere with conductivity of nervus urges

in the initial phase of spinal cord hurts ( spinal daze )

with redness related to severe ischaemia

in pancreatitis, peritoneal inflammation, or infection in the abdominal pit

with hypokalemia, mesenteric thrombosis or toxemia of pregnancy

kidney or lung disease

Mechanical obstructor may ensue from the followers:

Scar tissue in the belly, frequently called adhesions. This tissue can wrap around a piece of intestine. The contents of the intestine are prevented from traveling usually through the bowel

Bowel that twits on itself or develops a bad crick. This is called volvulus

Faecal impaction or difficult stool that can non go through through the intestine

Cancer such as colon malignant neoplastic disease or malignant neoplastic disease of the pancreas

Hernias is bulge of the abdominal contents through the abdominal wall

( Barbara, 2002 )

3 Incidence



When mechanical obstructor of the flow of enteric contents occurs, a sequence of events develops as follows. First, enteric obstructor occurs when gases and fluids accumulate in the country proximal to the obstruction, dilating the bowel. Gases arise chiefly from swallowed air but besides from bacterial activity in the bowel. Second, progressively strong contractions of the proximal bowel occur in an attempt to travel the contents forth. The increasing force per unit area in the lms leads to more secernments come ining the bowel and besides compresses the venas in the wall, forestalling soaking up, as the enteric wall becomes dropsical. The enteric dilatation leads to persistent purging with extra loss of fluid and electrolytes. With little enteric obstructor, there is no chance to resorb fluid and electrolytes, and hypovolemia rapidly consequences ( Barbara, 2002 ) .

If the obstructor is non removed, the enteric wall becomes ischaemic and necrotic as the arterial blood supply to the tissue is reduced by the force per unit area. If distortion of the bowel ( e.g. : volvulus ) has occurred or if immediate compaction of arterias ( e.g. : invagination or strangulated hernia ) consequences from the primary cause of obstructor, the enteric wall becomes quickly necrotic and mortified. Ischemia and mortification of the enteric wall finally lead to reduced excitation and surcease of vermiculation. A lessening in intestine sounds indicates this alteration.

Normally, the obstructor promotes rapid reproduction of enteric bacteriums, some of which produce endotoxins. As the affected enteric wall becomes necrotic and more permeable, enteric bacteriums or toxins can leak into peritoneal pit ( peritoneal inflammation ) or into the blood supply ( bacteriemia and blood poisoning ) . In clip, perforation of the necrotic section may happen, taking to generalized peritoneal inflammation ( Barbara, 2002 ) .

For functional obstructor or paralytic intestinal obstructions normally consequences from neurologic damage. Peristalsis ceases and dilatation of the bowel occurs as fluids and electrolytes accumulate in the bowel. In this type of obstructor, automatic cramp of the enteric musculus do non happen, but the balance of the procedure is similar to that of mechanical obstructor ( Barbara, 2002 ) .


With mechanical obstructor of the little bowel, terrible flatulent abdominal hurting develops as vermiculation addition ab initio, sickness and irregularity qualifying little intestine obstructor. It may besides do sleepiness intense thirst, unease and ache may dry up unwritten mucose membranes and the lingua. Borborygmi are hearable rumbling sounds caused by motion of gas in the bowel and enteric hastes can be heard as the enteric musculus forcefully contracts in an effort to impel the contents frontward. These are loud plenty to be heard without stethoscope. Palpation elicits abdominal tenderness with moderate dilatation ; bounce tenderness occurs when obstructor has caused choking with ischaemia.

The marks of paralytic intestinal obstruction differ significantly in that intestine sounds lessening or are absent and hurting is steady. Vomiting and abdominal distention occur rapidly with obstructor of the little bowel. Vomiting is perennial and consists foremost stomachic contents and so bile-stained duodenal contents. No stool or gas is passed. Restlessness and perspiration with tachycardia is present initial. As hypovolaemia and electrolyte instability advancement, marks of desiccation, failing, confusion and daze are evident ( Barbara, 2002 ) .

Signs and symptoms of big intestine obstructor develop more easy because the colon can absorb fluid from its contents and distend good beyond its normal size. Constipation may be merely clinical consequence for yearss. Colicky abdominal hurting may so look all of a sudden, bring forthing cramps that last less than 1 infinitesimal each and repeat every few proceedingss. Continuous hypogastric hurting and sickness may develop, but purging is normally absent at first. Large bowel obstructor can do dramatic abdominal dilatation ; cringles of the big intestine may go seeable on the venters. Finally, complete big intestine obstructor may do faecal emesis, uninterrupted hurting or localized peritoneal inflammation. Patients with partial obstructor may expose any of the above marks and symptoms in a milder signifier. However, escape of liquid stool around the obstructor is common in partial obstructor ( Lippincott Williams & A ; Wilkins, 2007 ) .

7 Imagination MODALITIES

7.1 Laboratory Trial

Laboratory rating of patients with suspected obstructor should include a complete blood count and metabolic panel. Hypokalemic, hypochlomeric metabolic alkalosis may be noted in patients with terrible vomit. Elevated blood urea N degrees are consistent with desiccation, and hemoglobin and hemotocrit degrees may be increased. The white blood cell count may be elevated if enteric bacterium translocate into the blood stream. It can do the systemic inflammatory response syndrome or sepsis. The development of metabolic acidosis particularly in a patient with an increasing serum lactate degree, may signal intestine ischaemia ( Patrick G. Jackson & A ; Manish Raiji, 2011 ) .

7.2 Plain Radiography

The initial imagination survey of pick for corroborating intestine obstructor with clinical marks and symptoms of enteric obstructor should include hurting unsloped abdominal skiagraphy. This skiagraphy can rapidly find if enteric perforation has occurred. The free air can be seen above the liver in unsloped movies or left sidelong decubitus movies. Radiography is 60-70 % sensitiveness for sensing of little intestine obstructor and it performs better in top-quality obstructor. Radiography can be happen the diagnosing of little intestine obstructor include distended cringles of little intestine, collapsed colon, the aa‚¬A“string of pearls gestural ensuing from little sum of residuary air compared with the big sum of retained fluid and pseudotumour related to distended fluid filled cringles.

In big intestine obstructor, it is of import to observe the grade of cecal distention on the field abdominal movies, since marked distention will indicate to the demand for pressing decompression to forestall cecal perforation. In patients with little intestine obstructor, supine positions show dilation of multiple cringles of little intestine with a dearth of air in the big intestine ( Figure 4 ) . Those with big intestines obstructor may hold dilation of the colon with decompressed little intestine in the scene of the competent ileocecal valve. Upright or sidelong decubitus movies may demo runing air unstable degree ( Figure 5 ) . These findings show in concurrence with a deficiency of air and stool in the distal colon and rectum are extremely implicative of mechanical enteric obstructor ( Patrick G. Jackson & A ; Manish Raiji, 2011 ) .

Figure 4: Supine position of the venters in a patient with enteric obstructor. Dilated cringle of little intestine are seeable ( pointers ) ( Patrick G. Jackson & A ; Manish Raiji, 2011 ) .

Figure 5: Lateral decubitus position of the venters, demoing air-fluid degrees consistent with enteric obstructor ( pointers ) ( Patrick G. Jackson & A ; Manish Raiji, 2011 ) .


Fails to name the cause of obstructor in most instances

In obstructor of ileocaecal part, it may be hard to find whether the degree in the proximal big intestine or distal ileum

Can non reliably observe the presence of ischemic complication

7.3 Computed Imaging

7.3.1 Small intestine obstructor

By and large, it is considered the imaging mode of pick when field abdominal skiagraphy and the clinical characteristics suggest an ague little intestine obstructor. CT is sensitive for sensing of top-quality obstructor ( 90-96 % ) . Although CT is extremely sensitive and specific for top-quality obstructor, its value diminishes in patients with partial obstructor. In these patients, unwritten contrast stuff may be seen tracking the length of the bowel to the rectum with no distinct country of passage. It utile in:

Confirming or excepting little intestine obstructor ( versus pseudo-obstruction )

Specifying the grade and site of obstructor

Identifying the cause of little intestine obstructor ( 73-95 % sensitiveness )

Confirming or excepting the diagnosing of ischemia ( & gt ; 90 % sensitiveness and specificity )

The advantages are:

Superior to enteroclysis in demoing extraluminal multitudes, uncovering abscesses, malignance, anterior adhesions every bit good as characteristics of choking.

It is ability to picture other causes of an acute venters

The restrictions:

Lower sensitiveness ( about 50 % ) for the sensing and location of low-grade little intestine obstructor

( Diagnostic Imaging Pathways, 2009 )

7.3.2 Large Bowel Obstruction

It indicated as an option to contrast clyster in rating of big intestine obstructor, peculiarly with aged and immobile patients. CT findings in patients with enteric obstructor include dilated cringles of intestine proximal to the site of obstructor with distally decompressed intestine. The presence of distinct passage point helps steer operative planning ( Figure 6 ) . Absence of contrast stuff in the rectum is besides an of import mark of complete obstructor. For this ground, rectal disposal of contrast stuff should be avoided ( Patrick G. Jackson & A ; Manish Raiji, 2011 ) . The advantages are:

Does non necessitate interpolation of rectal tubing and contrast and is hence better tolerated than a contrast clyster

In one survey, successfully diagnosed colonic obstructor in 96 % of patients and pseudo-obstruction in 93 % of patients

The restrictions for this are false negative and false positive consequences and limited diagnostic with partially blockading lesions ( Diagnostic Imaging Pathways, 2009 ) .

Figure 6: Axial computed tomography scan screening dilated, contrast- filled cringles of intestine on the patientaa‚¬a„?s left ( xanthous pointers ) , with decompressed distal little intestine on the patientaa‚¬a„?s right ( ruddy pointers ) . The cause of obstructor, an increased umbilical hernia, can besides be seen ( green pointers ) , with proximally dilated intestine come ining the hernia and decompressed intestine go outing the hernia ( Patrick G. Jackson & A ; Manish Raiji, 2011 ) .

7.4 Contrast Fluoroscopy

Contrast surveies, such as little intestine follow-through, can be helpful in the diagnosing of a partial enteric obstructor in patients with high clinical intuition and in clinically stable patients in whom initial conservative direction was non effectual. The usage of water-soluble contrast stuff is non merely diagnostic, but may be can utilize for curative in patients with partial small-bowel obstructor. Contrast fluoroscopy may besides be utile in finding the country of bowel that need for surgery ( Patrick G. Jackson & A ; Manish Raiji, 2011 ) .

There are several fluctuations of contrast fluoroscopy. In the little intestine follow-through survey, the patient drinks contrast stuff, so consecutive abdominal radiogram are taken to visualise the transition of contrast through the enteric piece of land. The advantage of little intestine follow-through is does non necessitate nasointestinal cannulation, and compared to enteroclysis, it is easier to execute and does non necessitate extra expertness. The restrictions for this process are they take clip for contrast to make the obstructor and Ba is diluted because of extra residuary intraluminal fluid ensuing in non-uniform little intestine filling ( Diagnostic Imaging Pathways, 2009 ) .

Enteroclysis involves naso- or aro-duodenal cannulation, followed by the instillment of contrast stuff straight into the little intestine. Although this survey has superior sensitiveness compared with little intestine follow through, it is more labour-intensive and is seldom performed. The advantage enteroclysis are it has ability to estimate the badness of obstructor objectively. The restrictions are it need for nasoenteric cannulation and presentation of extrinsic causes is sometimes hard. Rectal fluoroscopy can be helpful in finding the site of a suspected big intestine obstructor ( Patrick G. Jackson & A ; Manish Raiji, 2011 )

7.5 Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( MRI )

Magnetic resonance imagination ( MRI ) may be more sensitive than CT in the rating of enteric obstructor. MRI enteroclysis, which involves cannulation of the duodenum and extract of contrast stuff straight into little intestine. It can more faithfully find the location and cause of obstructor. However, MRI is non universally available and really expensive ( Patrick G. Jackson & A ; Manish Raiji, 2011 ) .

7.6 Ultrasonography

In patients with top-quality obstructor, ultrasound rating of the venters has high sensitiveness for enteric obstructor, nearing 85 per centum. However, because of the broad handiness of CT, it has mostly replaced echography as the first-line probe in stable patients with suspected enteric obstructor. Ultrasonography remains a valuable probe for unstable patients with an equivocal diagnosing and in patients that contraindication with radiation exposure, such as pregnant adult females ( Patrick G. Jackson & A ; Manish Raiji, 2011 ) .


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