A. Aldosterone increases the number of passive sodium channels in the luminal membrane of the distal tubule and collecting duct, thus aiding sodium reabsorption.
B. Aldosterone is produced in the adrenal cortex.
C. Aldosterone increases sodium reabsorption by increasing the number of Na+-K+ ATPase pumps in the luminal membrane of the proximal tubule.
D. Aldosterone is stimulated by decreased plasma sodium levels and increased plasma potassium levels.
A. ADH would increase urine volume.
B. ADH is synthesized by the adrenal gland and works in the kidney.
C. ADH inserts water channels into the luminal membrane of the proximal tubules.
D. ADH is released by the posterior pituitary gland.
A. hypertonic – 600 mOsm
B. hypotonic – 100 mOsm
C. isotonic – 300 mOsm
D. hypertonic – 1200 mOsm
A. ADH – high; 100 mOsm (urine)
B. ADH – low; 600 mOsm (urine)
C. ADH – low; 100 mOsm (urine)
D. ADH – high; 600 mOsm (urine)
A. ADH – high; low urine flow rate (0.25 ml/min)
B. ADH – low; high urine flow rate (16 ml/min)
C. ADH – high; high urine flow rate (16 ml/min)
D. ADH – low; low urine flow rate (0.25 ml/min)
A. a decrease in the osmolarity of the interstitium
B. an increase in the osmolarity of the interstitium
C. active transport of water
A. sodium-glucose cotransporter
B. the sodium-potassium ATPase pump in the luminal membrane
C. the sodium-potassium ATPase pump in the basolateral membrane
D. passive sodium channels
A. glucose carrier transporter
B. Na+-glucose cotransporter
C. potassium ion channel
D. Na+-H+ countertransport
A. number of transport carriers in the basolateral membrane
number of sodium-potassium B. ATPase pumps in the basolateral membrane
C. number of transport carriers in the luminal membrane
A. water and small solutes
B. nitrogenous waste particles, such as urea
C. ions, such as sodium and potassium
D. blood cells and large particles
A. hydrostatic pressure of blood (blood pressure)
B. colloid osmotic pressure of blood
A. net filtration would increase
B. net filtration would decrease
C. net filtration would not be altered
A. 25 mm Hg
B. 60 mm Hg
C. 50 mm Hg
D. 35 mm Hg