The earliest anatomically modern homo remains found in South Asia day of the month from about 30. 000 old ages ago. About contemporary Mesolithic stone art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent. including at the Bhimbetka stone shelters in Madhya Pradesh. Around 7000 BCE. the first known Neolithic colonies appeared on the subcontinent in Mehrgarh and other sites in western Pakistan. These bit by bit developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation. the first urban civilization in South Asia ; it flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in Pakistan and western India. Centred around metropoliss such as Mohenjo-daro. Harappa. Dholavira. and Kalibangan. and trusting on varied signifiers of subsistence. the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE. in footings of civilization. many parts of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic to the Iron Age.
The Vedas. the oldest Bibles of Hinduism. were composed during this period. and historiographers have analysed these to situate a Vedic civilization in the Punjab part and the upper Gangetic Plain. Most historiographers besides consider this period to hold encompassed several moving ridges of Indo-european migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system. which created a hierarchy of priests. warriors. and free provincials. but which excluded autochthonal peoples by labelling their businesss impure. originate during this period. On the Deccan Plateau. archeological grounds from this period suggests the being of a chiefdom phase of political administration. In southern India. a patterned advance to sedentary life is indicated by the big figure of megalithic memorials dating from this period. every bit good as by nearby hints of agribusiness. irrigation armored combat vehicles. and craft traditions.