Word count: 2084 “A personalised induction will always be more effective. ” Discuss. Base your answer on theoretical concepts and techniques presented in class. All humans are unique and individual. We all have different likes and dislikes, phobias, hobbies, religions, cultures, we have all been raised differently and taught different values and beliefs etc so why not personalise the induction to fit the individual? There are many arguments for and against, which I will go into more depth with throughout the essay. When we use hypnosis with a client we are working with the subconscious mind so in order to achieve the best chance of success we need to do our utmost to assist our client to realise the most beneficial state possible. ’ (chrysalis handout, Hypnotherapy and counselling skills, 2011) In the early 1970’s, John Grinder and Richard Bandler were the founders of Nero Linguistic Programming (NLP). ‘NLP is an approach to communication, personal development and psychotherapy.
The title refers to a stated connection between the neurological processes (neuro), language (linguistic) and behavioural patterns that have been learned through experience (programming) and can be organised to achieve specific goals in life. ’ (Wikipedia, 2011). With NLP, people see the world and react to it very differently. As we all are aware, there are five main senses which we have and use on a daily basis. They are smell, sight, hearing, taste and feeling/touch. Our brain receives and processes information differently using our senses.
Grinder and Bandler, knew that we all used our senses outwardly but the same senses were used inwardly. These were called “representation systems” or “modalities“. All of us have a preference to which sense we use more. People may have more than one preference but there is usually one that is used more than another. Some people are happier with listening to someone talking whereas others prefer to have more of a hands on approach and others like to read things. There are three main modalities which people fit into which I will go into more depth with later. They are Visual, Kinaesthetic and Auditory.
We all communicate with people on a daily basis. 55% of our communication with people is through body language, 38% of it is done through our volume and tone and only 7% is only actually done through our words in which we use. When we do an induction you will be working mainly with clients that have their eyes closed so straight away you have lost 55% of the communication, as the client will not be able to see the body language of the therapist. Our tone and volume wont be used excessively as we try and use a monotone approach and only put emphasis on certain words.
So again we are losing another 38% of our communication this is why it is so important to utilise the 7% that we have with ours words in which we use. This is where the modalities will come in. When we do an induction we can find out what the client’s favourite modality is and use this to our advantage by emphasising on that specific one and hopefully in turn help the client quicker. As I mentioned before there are three main modalities. These are Kinaesthetic (feeling), Visual (sight) and Auditory (hearing).
There are also another three but they are less common in people, these being Olfactory (smell), Gustatory (taste) and Auditory Digital (internal dialogue). People that are Auditory Digital think in language and symbols. There are ways in which we can pick up on which modality people favour more although some people can have more than one they favour but one will usually be stronger than the other. These can be pick up by the language used, the voice tone and breathing, posture and gesture and also lateral eye movements (LEM).
These are not 100% reliable but can be used as an aid to see the clients preferred modality. Firstly I will talk about Kinaesthetic. This is to do with our feelings, emotions and touch. People that are Kinaesthetic will be able to understand other peoples emotions quickly and when walking around such as in a shop may touch things as they walk by them. People who are drawn to this sense will use language such as ’I know how you feel’ or ’I cant put my finger on it’. They may have a softer, lower or deeper tone to their voice, will speak slowly and will usually look down to the right.
They will have relaxed muscles and rounded shoulders. They will more than likely breathe deeply from the abdomen. (chrysalis handout, Hypnotherapy and counselling skills, 2011) Visual – they have a great imagination and may daydream and fantasise. They will use phrases such as ‘I see what you mean’ or ‘you‘ll look back on this‘. If you asked them to describe something they would be able to visualise it and describe it well. They will generally speak faster and in a higher pitch than an auditory person and will usually hold their head high.
Their body may look less relaxed than a Kinaesthetic person. They are usually thinner in body type. Their eyes are more likely to be defocused or going up to the left or the right. If they look to the left they are remembering something and if they are looking to the right the are forming an image. Their breathing is likely to be from the top part of the chest and shallower. (chrysalis handout, Hypnotherapy and counselling skills, 2011) Auditory – these people will love to listen to music or to someone telling them a story.
The kind of phrases they will use are ‘that rings a bell’ or ‘I hear what you are saying’. Their LEM will be around the horizontal midline. If they look right they are constructing something, if they look to their left they are trying to remember something. They will have a rhythmic, clear and resonant voice and their breathing will probably be even and across the middle of the chest. They are usually of medium body build and may tilt there head to one side. (chrysalis handout, Hypnotherapy and counselling skills, 2011) Olfactory – these people will use language such as ‘I smell a rat‘.
Gustatory – they will you phrases such as ‘spice up your life’. Although we favour one sense when writing or practising an induction it is still good to use language for all senses, which is also known as compounding but just emphasis the favourite sense more than the others. As well as looking at this, we also need to look at the style of induction used. There a two styles of induction which can be used. The first one which could be used with a client is the ‘Authoritarian’ style, which is very direct, commanding and the therapist will tell you what to do next.
This is also known as ‘direct suggestion’. Examples of the type of things put in a authoritarian script are, “you will take a long deep breath” or “you will now close your eyes”. ‘Generally speaking, the subjects who are most responsive to the authoritarian technique are those who have a great respect for and respond well to authoritarian figures in daily life, such as teachers, parents, employers, community leaders and police officers. People who are scientifically orientated will be more likely to fit into this category‘. (Hadley & Staudacher, 1996)
The other style is ‘Permissive’ or ‘indirect suggestion‘. This is a more caring and nurturing approach. It gives the client choice and a feeling of safety and ‘the hypnotist and the subject are equal partners in the process‘. (Hadley & Staudacher, 1996) Examples of what they may use in their scripts are, “you may in a moment want to close your eyes” or “you may move around a little but that is ok”. ‘The subjects who are most responsive to this technique are ones who are more imaginative and creative‘. (Hadley & Staudacher, 1996)
Previous pioneers of hypnotherapy had acknowledged that there were two different approaches The first pioneer being Dave Elman (1900 – 1967) who was famous for the use the authoritarian, direct style and then there was Milton Eriksson (1901 – 1980) who was famous for using the permissive more indirect style and believed the client should take an active role in the therapy so they were able to make there own choices but it wasn’t until 1916 when a man called Sandor Ferenczi (1873 – 1933) came along and distinguished the two approaches.
He called these styles “maternal” which was warm and permissive and “paternal” which was more direct and aggressive. We now know these as Permissive and Authoritarian approaches. Chrysalis have put together a ‘Client Screed Assessment’ which is designed to help you with deciding on which style to use on a client (direct or indirect). It looks at the clients appearance, behaviour and personality as it may be difficult to see would be best for the client by just talking to them in one session. As you can see from the above personalising an induction will be beneficial to the individual.
If you can find out the modality you can use this within your induction and this will help with the 7% of communication with words. If you can find out whether someone prefers a direct or indirect style this will also help as the client will feel more comfortable and at ease which will make it more likely to be successful for the individual. Problems with a personalised induction Personalised inductions would not work in a group session as you will have many different people with different modalities.
In the course group we had people ranging over all modalities and also some people preferring a more imaginative indirect approach where as other preferred the more direct approach. From personal experience I do not work well with the direct approach. The use of compounding for a group is definitely the best approach. Voice recordings could cause limitations too if they are personalised. You can always get the client wrong as you will not have long with them to assess what type of person they are.
They may be nervous so not show what they are truly like as a person and so you could end up presuming the wrong modality or which style is best for them. This could lead to an unsuccessful outcome. A client may withhold information from you which you could need to see what type of person they are. There could be a specific phobia someone has which you are not aware of. For example, someone may have a fear of water and you not realise. In this case if you use water as an imagery it will not help the client to relax.
The client could have an illness such as hay fever. In your induction you could describe a garden with flowers in it. This could trigger the hay fever for the client and interrupt the session. It could also depend on what the client is going for. For things like weight loss and smoking the authoritarian approach is usually best. If you use a permissive style for smoking such as “you may not want to smoke tomorrow” it will not have the same affect as using a direct approach such as “you will not want to smoke tomorrow”.
An individuals preferences could change. One week the client may be more visual but the next session they may be more kinaesthetic. It can also be difficult for the therapist as they will have their own preferred method. For example I am more auditory so writing a script for someone who is more visual would be difficult for me. There may be a time restraints and doing a personal induction for each client could become time consuming.
After looking into this subject I feel that if working with an individual it is important that you build a rapport and a connection with the client so they trust you and you should listen to all the client has to say. If this is done well then you can build a personalised induction for the individual. As people and their lifestyles change I would focus on their more favoured modality but still use the others in there just in case the client changes session by session. As I said at the beginning we are all individuals so deserve a personal touch rather than using the same induction for every client.