Anthropology and its practices of taking a look at every part of the body better helps to understand why his diseases takes place, and also introduces why natural selection and adaptation are involved with this disease. Natural selection is a very important part of evolutionary change; It refers to changes In culture, genetic change and the change in the frequency of traits Arming 2013:28). Physical Anthropology looks into evolutionary factors such as mutation, and gene flow, which is what allows for better understanding of the Hemoglobin S, which plays a large part in having Sickle Cell Anemia.

Sickle Cell Anemia Is a Madeline In Human recessive trait. If the environment changes, ultimately allele frequencies change also. Alleles are alternate forms of a gene. When allele frequencies are changed this is called adaptation (Juryman 2013:90). Hemoglobin S (Hubs) is essentially an abnormal form of hemoglobin; people with Sickle Cell Anemia produce no normal hemoglobin and are given the Hubs allele from both parents. Through the study of evolution In Anthropology and the study of genetic makeup, it helps to understand how the Hubs allele is passed on through genetics.

Recessive conditions like Sickly Cell Anemia: Recessive conditions are commonly associated with the lack of a substance usually, an enzyme. For a person actually to have a recessive disorder, he or she must have two copies of the recessive allele that causes it. People who have only one copy of a harmful recessive allele are unaffected, but they can still pass that allele on to offspring. (Remember, half their gametes will carry the recessive allele). For this reason they’re frequently called carriers. If their mate Is also a carrier Its possible for them to have a child who will be homozygous for the allele, and that child will be affected.

Juryman 2013:80] Looking at alleles through anthropology one can see that people that are homozygous or the Hub allele produce normal hemoglobin, and those that are heterozygous with the Hub/Hubs are those that carry the sickle cell trait, which can then be genetically 1 OFF comprehensively defined as “the study of human biology within the frame work of evolution with an emphasis on the interaction between biology and culture” Airman 2013:12). Anthropology flared the interest in human variation; this shift in focus is called biological anthropology.

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The focus on this field was decided because the intelligence was there Airman 2013:12). Gregory Mendel plays a large part in the linking of Sickle Cell Anemia with anthropology in many ways. The principles Mendel discovered apply to all biological organisms, including humans, another fact that illustrates biological connection among all living things” Airman 2013:74). Mender’s studies of genetic inheritance, essentially lead to the discovery of the Madeline Traits in Humans, also known discrete traits. Mendel took plants that expressed different traits and he created hybrids.

A hybrid is a byproduct of two parents with varying different traits. His studies lead to the foundation of really understanding what genetic inheritance is, and how that is applied to things like genetic mutations, which play a large part in Sickle Cell Anemia Airman 2013:74). Mendel created a series of genetic principles to help explain his studies and how parents pass down dominant traits. One interesting finding of Mender’s studies was that all traits were either recessive or dominant, and these combine together and can result in genetic mutations.

Sickle Cell Anemia is a characteristic of the result of harmful alleles, which Mendel defined in his model for understanding this disease Airman 2011:79). Before these findings were widely accepted as true, the thought that species didn’t change and evolve was prevalent. This thought is defined as the fixity of species. Had this way of thinking continued, we have never reached the understanding of biology, the genetic structure of a human, and natural selection Airman 2013:29). Many scientists set platforms for the linking of Sickle Cell Anemia and anthropology.

Johns Ray developed the concept of species and discovered that “groups of plants and animals could be differentiated from other groups by their ability to mate with one another and produce healthy offspring” Airman 2013:31). Expanding on this thought Carpools Linnaeus created the system of binomial nomenclature, which is a dictatorial system for grouping species Airman 2013:31). This system of categorizing species made scientists question why they were different, and what made them different. These two thoughts made many scientists following them examine further into the makeup of species starting with the smallest part component.

The smallest part being a base, looking that in depth at species lead to understanding disease. Anthropology looks into the genetic makeup off human to decide who we are and where we are going Airman 2013:28) Understanding species, natural selection and how the environment affects those makes it easy for anthropology idea of holism to help understand this diseases. This disease results from mutations in the blood cells, and without starting small in Anthropology it might be harder to understand why mutations like that happen.

Question #3 Explain all the symbols and their interaction in the context of recent attacks on evolutionary theory. What is it about the scientific method that doesn’t allow science to proclaim the “TRUTH”? To begin understanding why the scientific method doesn’t allow science to proclaim the truth a better understanding of the scientific method is needed. The scientific method is defined as “an approach to research whereby a hypothesis is tested by collecting and analyzing data” Airman 2013:20).

The scientific method works in a step-by-step process, which ultimately if it stands up to testing, becomes a theory. Understanding natural phenomena by observation is what science is, and creating thoughts and a hypothesis as to why these things happen is the first step in the scientific method. As each new scientist takes on a new theory, they are giving an empirical approach to solving natural phenomena. Empirical means relying on experiment or observation. Developing research and looking into past observations into this information is a big step in creating a hypothesis.

They identify a research problem and gather information to solve it Airman 2013:20). After gathering the information for your research problem, developing a design to test the hypothesis is the next step. This step is very important, during this step data needs to be controlled very closely and those who are testing it need to be able to describe the results very well. One main reason it is very important to be able to describe your results in detail is because it allows scientists after you to repeat the experiments and make comparisons.

Juryman better defines data as facts from which conclusions can be drawn. While collecting data for your hypothesis it, the collecting is based on trying to falsify your hypothesis and test up against it. The testing of a hypotheses takes several years and many times involves many researchers, some who may not have even been there during the original work Airman 2013: 21). If the hypothesis holds true through rigorous testing it may become part of a theory or Just be a new theory itself, “But like hypotheses, theories aren’t facts. They are tested explanations of facts. ” Airman 2013:20). Any proposition that is stated as absolute or does not allow the possibility of falsification is not a scientific hypothesis and should never be considered as such” Airman 2013:21). That theory will be tested by scientists after for many years, until ever proven wrong. Juryman gives the example of gravity as a tested explanation of facts: For example, it’s a fact that when you drop an object it faults to the ground. The explanation for this fact is the theory of gravity. But, like hypotheses, theories can be altered over time with further experimentation and y using newly developed technologies in testing.


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