Where does the process of segmentation occur?
A) anus
B) small intestine
C) stomach
D) esophagus

Answer (B) Small intestine

How would you classify chewing food?
A) ingestion
B) digestion
C) propulsion
D) mechanical breakdown

Answer (D) Mechanical breakdown

The major means of propelling food through the digestive tract is
A) swallowing
B) churning
C) peristalsis
D) segmentation

Answer (C) peristalsis

The __________ is the serous membrane that lines the abdominal body wall.
A) mesentery
B) visceral peritoneum
C) parietal peritoneum
D) omenta

Answer (C) parietal peritoneum

Which layer of the alimentary canal is constructed from either stratified squamous or simple columnar epithelium?
A) muscularis externa
B) mucosa
C) submucosa
D) serosa

Answer (B) mucosa

Which layer of the alimentary canal is responsible for segmentation and peristalsis?
A) Serosa
B) muscularis externa
C) mucosa
D) submucosa

Answer (B) muscularis externa

The nervous system does not regulate digestive activity.
A) True
B) False

Answer (B) False

What muscle forms the labia of the mouth?
A) buccinator
B) zygomaticus
C) orbicularis oculi
D) orbicularis oris

Answer (D) orbicularis oris

What is the function of the soft palate?
A) The soft palate rises reflexively to close off the nasopharynx when swallowing occurs.
B) The soft palate provides a surface against which the tongue forces food during chewing.
C) The soft palate secures the tongue to the floor of the mouth and limits its posterior movement.
D) The soft palate cleanses the mouth.

Answer (A) The soft palate rises reflexively to close off the nasopharynx when swallowing occurs.

What is the opening to the mouth called?
A) oral vestibule
B) oral cavity
C) oral orifice
D) oral cavity proper

Answer (C) oral orifice

Which of the following is NOT a function of saliva?
A) Saliva dissolves food chemicals so they can be tasted.
B) Saliva contains enzymes that begin the chemical breakdown of proteins.
C) Saliva moistens food and helps compact it into a bolus.
D) Saliva cleanses the mouth.

Answer (B) Saliva contains enzymes that begin the chemical breakdown of proteins.

Which of the following inhibits salivation?
A) sight or smell of food
B) sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system
C) spicy foods
D) parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system

Answer (B) B) sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system

Which teeth are best suited for cutting or nipping off pieces of food in the permanent dentition?
A) molars
B) premolars (bicuspids)
C) canines
D) incisors

Answer (D) incisors

The __________ guards the entry of food into the stomach.
A) ileocecal valve
B) diaphragm
C) pyloric sphincter
D) cardiac sphincter

Answer (D) Cardiac sphincter

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the stomach?
A) The stomach produces a double-layered coat of alkaline mucus.
B) The stomach has three layers of muscle in the muscularis tunic.
C) The stomach releases enzymes to digest carbohydrates.
D) The stomach mucosa is folded into rugae.

Answer (C) The stomach releases enzymes to digest carbohydrates.

Which digestive process normally occurs only in the mouth?
A) ingestion
B) mechanical digestion
C) absorption
D) segmentation

Answer (A) ingestion

Which mesentery helps tether the stomach to the liver?
A) pylorus
B) lesser omentum
C) greater omentum
D) fundus

Answer (B) lesser omentum

The mucosa collapses inward when the stomach is empty, forming large folds known as __________.
A) fundus
B) pylorus
C) cardia
D) rugae

Answer (D) rugae

The __________ is the last segment of the small intestine.
A) duodenum
B) ileum
C) jejunum
D) colon

Answer(B) ileum

Blood draining from the stomach is more alkaline (basic) than blood that serves the stomach.
A) True
B) False

Answer (A) True

What role of the stomach is essential to life?
A) production of hydrochloric acid
B) production of intrinsic factor
C) production of chyme
D) production of VIP

Answer (B) production of intrinsic factor

In a patient suffering from a gastric ulcer caused by Helicobacter pylori, the cells most likely to have been damaged first are the ___
A) enteroendocrine cells
B) parietal cells
C) chief cells
D) mucous cells

Answer (D) mucous cells

Before and during vomiting, the emetic center initiates motor responses that involve ______.
A) sympathetic neurons
B) parasympathetic neurons
C) the somatic nervous system
D) All of the listed responses are correct.

Answer (D) All of the listed responses are correct.

What structural modification of the small intestine slows the movement of chyme through the lumen?
A) circular folds
B) villi
C) lacteals
D) microvilli

Answer (A) circular folds

Which cell in the small intestine’s mucosa is a mucus-secreting cell?
A) enteroendocrine cell
B) absorptive cell
C) Paneth cell
D) goblet cell

Answer (D) goblet cell

Which duct carries bile out of bile ducts in the liver?
A) bile duct
B) porta hepatis
C) common hepatic duct
D) cystic duct

Answer (C) common hepatic duct

Which component of bile emulsifies fats?
A) bile salts
B) cholesterol
C) bilirubin
D) stercobilin

Answer (A) bile salts

Which vessel delivers nutrient-rich blood to the liver from the digestive tract?
A) central vein
B) inferior vena cava
C) hepatic vein
D) hepatic portal vein

Answer (D) hepatic portal vein

What is a major function of pancreatic juice?
A) neutralizing chyme entering the small intestine from the stomach
B) acidifying the contents of the small intestine
C) emulsifying fats by breaking them into smaller pieces
D) acidifying the contents of the stomach

Answer (A) neutralizing chyme entering the small intestine from the stomach

What triggers the release of secretin from the small intestine?
A) presence of cholecystokinin (CCK) in the small intestine
B) presence of bile in the small intestine
C) presence of proteins in chyme entering the small intestine
D) presence of acidic, fatty chyme in the small intestine

Answer (D) presence of acidic fatty chyme in the small intestine

Bile is produced by the __________.
A) gallbladder
B) stomach
C) liver
D) pancreas

Answer (C) liver

Most digestion and absorption of nutrients occur in the __________.
A) liver
B) stomach
C) small intestine
D) large intestine

Answer (C) small intestine

An obstruction by a gallstone is least likely to occur in the ______
A) common hepatic duct
B) bile duct
C) cystic duct
D) lumen of the hepatopancreatic sphincter

Answer (A) common hepatic duct

What is the function of the bacterial flora that inhabit the large intestine?
A) Bacterial flora release a bicarbonate-rich juice to help neutralize chyme from the stomach.
B) Bacterial flora synthesize B-complex vitamins and some of the vitamin K needed by the liver.
C) Bacterial flora facilitate nutrient absorption.
D) Bacterial flora emulsify fats.

Answer (B) Bacterial flora synthesize B-complex vitamins and some of the vitamin K needed by the liver

Which of the following is the primary function of the large intestine?
A) defecation
B) mechanical breakdown
C) nutrient absorption
D) digestion

Answer (A) defecation

The major function of the large intestine is to __________.
A) absorb nutrients
B) produce vitamins
C) make intrinsic factor
D) absorb water

Answer (D) absorb water

Bacteria that reside in the large intestine make vitamin K.
A) True
B) False

Answer (A) True

Which vitamins are made by the bacteria in the large intestine?
A) B complex and K vitamins
B) vitamins C and D
C) vitamins A and E
D) B complex and D vitamins

Answer (A) B complex and K vitamins

The formation of diverticula involves, most significantly, the ______.
A) atrophy of the muscularis externa
B) atrophy of the mucosa
C) weakening of the colon’s submucosa
D) thickening of the serosa

Answer (C) weakening of the colon’s submucosa

An effective way to medically treat diarrhea would be to use a drug that ______.
A) increases the activity of the longitudinal layer of the muscularis
B) increases the activity of the parasympathetic division of the ANS
C) inhibits muscle tone in the anal sphincters
D) inhibits the activity of the myenteric nerve plexus

Answer (D) inhibits the activity of the myenteric nerve plexus

Enzymatic breakdown of which of the following compounds doesn’t begin until it reaches the stomach?
A) carbohydrates
B) lipids
C) proteins

Answer (C) proteins

Which of the following enzymes is important for breaking down protein?
A) pepsin
B) amylase
C) lipase

Answer (A) pepsin

Which of the following enzymes is important for the digestion of fat?
A) pancreatic lipase
B) trypsin
C) pancreatic amylase
D) pepsin

Answer (A) pancreatic lipase

In the small intestine, which of the following enzymes breaks down maltose?
A) lactase
B) dextrinase
C) maltase
D) sucrase
E) glucoamylase

Answer (E) glucoamylase

The breakdown products of which of the following are absorbed into lacteals?
A) fats
B) proteins
C) carbohydrates

Answer (A) fats

Salivation is controlled almost entirely by the nervous system. Which of the following stimuli would inhibit salivation?
A) the thought of food
B) fear
C) nausea
D) a lemon

Answer (B) fear

HCl secretions convert pepsinogen to the active hormone pepsin. What cells in the gastric pits produce pepsinogen?
A) parietal
B) G cells
C) chief
D) paracrine (also known as enteroendocrine cells)

Answer (C) chief

In response to a steak dinner, certain secretions are needed to aid digestion. What cells in the pancreas would provide these secretions?
A) islet of Langerhans cells
B) acinar cells
C) duct cells

Answer(B) acinar cells

An increase in HCl (hydrochloric acid) secretion in the duodenum would stimulate which hormone that would help to counteract the effects of HCl?
A) GIP (gastric inhibitory peptide)
B) CCK (cholecystokinin)
C) gastrin
D) secretin

Answer (D) secretin

The secretion in the large intestine consists of which of the following?
A) digestive enzymes such as CCK and secretin
B) intrinsic factor
C) bile
D) bicarbonate- and potassium-rich mucus

Answer (D) bicarbonate- and potassium-rich mucus

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