Francis Ferdinand, December 18, 1863 -?June 28, 1914 n. Sophia Ferdinand, March 1. 1868 – June 28, 1914 P Austrian leaders were backed up by Germany, Serbia was backed up but Russia I. Tensions between even more countries grew Q ultimatum Austria to Serbia I. Serbians demands so high that Austria refused to fulfill all of them R Austria issued war on Serbia – July 28 ‘Offs T Great Britain declared war on Germany – Gauge 4 I. Allies were formed U I’. Germany, Austria, & Italy vs..
France, Great Britain, & Russia V Mini-summary: Many countries were brought into the crossfire of war by default, Just by siding with different countries on a war that was only supposed to involve 2. Vocal and G’s Liberal: A supporter or member of a Liberal Party. Brinkmanship: The art or practice of pursuing a dangerous policy to the limits of after before stopping, typically in politics. Why were all the nation-states so quick to turn on each other? Conscription: Compulsory enlistment for state service, typically into the military. Was Serbian government directly involved with the assassination of Australia’s Archduke?
The Schlemiels Plan: The German General Staffs early 20th century overall strategic plan for victory in a possible future war where it might find itself fighting on two fronts . Summary: This war all started when an idea was presented. This idea was supposed to be good for Europe, it was supposed to benefit everyone. If everyone cooperated, it would have, but unfortunately there were a few countries that went a little power hungry. “A few countries” turned into whole groups of people with a certain ethnicity not wanting to mix with others. In turn, the idea was dropped, but the thirst for dominance was not.
The number of military men per country sky rocketed, as everyone competed with everyone for the title of most powerful and intimidating nation. Soon, an meager rivalry between 2 countries escalated as Austria and Germany were quick to point their fingers at Russia and Serbia for the assassination of the Austrian Archduke. Soon, many other European countries took sides in a war they were not even involved in, thus creating a hugely unnecessary war that was basically half of Europe against the other half. Reflection: There were a lot of miscommunication, misjudgment, and mistrusts within these countries.
Perhaps this shows that a good perception of the other side is a great way to avoid issues such as this one. II. The war A 1914-1915: Illusions and Stalemate B The Excitement of War c Went to far with enthusiasm D Tribal opinions – every citizen for their own country E War: happy event; brought people together will all the excitement F Interference from the Government G I. Biased opinions from the government about war I’. Propaganda issued to “support the cause” iii. Strikes/uproars from common workers, ready to fight/defend for their ‘v.
People thought the war would blow over soon because the country European history of wars had implied that, thought soldiers would be back soon H The War Itself I. Germans put Schlemiels Plan to work, directed by General Joseph Coffee it. Unexpected counter attack from the Russians: Halted Germans for a while, but iii. Vast number of deaths v. Russia was soon labeled as not a big threat; almost fell out of war Italy betrayed Germans with surprise attack v’. Germany-Austria team Joined forces with Bulgaria, eliminating Serbia from war 1 1916-1917: The Great Slaughter J The Germans were in the Lead I.
Went on the offensive in France/Britain it. Trench Warfare iii. Troops often became bored waiting on attacks they suspected to happen K Daily Life in the Trenches Confusion M When gunshots were fired, everyone became panicky and only followed the people next to them, creating havoc N Mustard gas O The Widening of the War P Widening of Allies . Germans became allies with the Ottoman Empire it. French/British/Russian army declares war on Ottoman Empire, Italy Joins forces with Russians for Austrian territory iii.
Other parts of the world became involved; Britain destroyed the Egypt Ottoman Empire Q Entry of the United States Naval attacks between Britain/Germany S Germany won entry into the United States T The Home Front: The Impact of Total War U Total War: Political Centralization and Economic Regimentation V encouraged people to become tribal War W Different factories (usually responsible for making other things) were now helping UT the war by manufacturing supplies X 750,000 died of hunger in Germany; 100- calories-a-day is what people usually ate (potato shortage) Y Military dictators took over government, forced any able man between the ages of 17-60 to fight for their country Z All things became centered around war; famine & hunger came about AAA The Songs of World War I German pride: “Never will an enemy touch your shore” C Song about how a battalion was shot/hung on barbed wire AD Song about a boy going to war and how proud he should be E ‘war Girls” IF Public Order and Public Opinion People began to protest war
H Strikes, hold-ups against the government II Military officials began punishing and threatening protestors J] Censored newspapers and replaced information with propaganda K The Social Impact of Total War Absence of people to do Jobs; everyone able was at war MM Trade union AN Women Job advantages; took the Jobs that were previously filled by men with lower wages 00 More and more people living in poverty were dying from storming trenches UP Women in Factories (almost like children) OR The Reality of War: War and the Family ss Tearing families apart TTT Making women and children at home believe that everything is fine, that their cabanas/fathers will be home soon JUJU John Moot; said he would be fine, was in the trenches surrounded by dismembered bodies, shot by opposing army W Terrible thing for everyone: no one wins Vocal and G’s Why did everyone want land all of a sudden? Why did people not fight Russia for their land instead, since they had so much? Armaments: The process of equipping military forces for war.
Regimentation: The imposition of order or discipline. Stalemate: A position counting as a draw, in which a player is not in check but cannot move except into check. Glibly: With superficial plausibility. Suppurating: Undergo the formation of pus; fester. Why were the governments so quick to cover up any form of rioting/disagreement of the public? Summary: When the idea of a war between more than 2 countries was introduced, everyone was very patriotic. Everyone wanted to support their own country, everyone wanted their country to prove themselves over everyone else. However, as war progressed on, people began to notice that there were more bad things to war than good.
The troops that were supposed to be home before Christmas ended up staying in battle for many, many years. As more and more men died, more and more men were recruited and taken away from their homes. Famine and hunger struck many countries, and disembodied limbs grew to be a normal site. More countries became involved, and any people who protested this huge war were immediately covered up and fed more propaganda. Yes, there were a few perks, such as women gaining Jobs, but there were many more dark things to go along with this time in history. Reflection: When I think of war, horrid things come to mind. I think of unnecessary man slaughter, famine, debt, etc.
These this do very well happen in war, but some good things can come out of it, too. For example, in WI, more people became accepting of the fact that women can do Jobs Just as well as men. Also, we as a country became united. If you look hard enough, there can be small, but still significant, diamond beneath the rubble. Ill. War and Revolution A The Russian Revolution C The March Revolution E The Bolshevik Revolution G Civil war I Ten Days That Shook the World K The Last Year of the War M Revolutionary Upheavals in Germany and Austria-Hungary Summary: Reflection: ‘V. The Peace Settlement A The Peace Settlement C Two Voices of Peacemaking E The Treaty of Versailles G The Other Peace Treaties V. Conclusion Summary