A teratogen is a(n):
a. fertilized egg that undergoes rapid cell division.
b. unborn child with one or more physical defects or abnormalities.
c. chromosomal abnormality.
d. substance that can cross the placental barrier and harm an unborn child.
d. substance that can cross the placental barrier and harm an unborn child.
If research suggested that a pregnant mother’s use of an artificial sweetener caused harm to the fetus, the artificial sweetener would be considered a(n):
a. FAS.
b. form of DNA.
c. depressant.
d. teratogen.
e. neurotransmitter.
d. teratogen.
Darlene smoked heavily during the entire 9 months of her pregnancy. Her newborn baby will most likely be:
a. underweight.
b. mentally retarded.
c. hyperactive.
d. timid and fearful.
a. underweight.
The leading cause of mental retardation, ________, may result in babies whose mothers drank alcohol heavily during pregnancy.
a. hyperactivity
b. fetal alcohol syndrome
c. habituation
d. embryonic differentiation
b. fetal alcohol syndrome
The rooting reflex refers to a baby’s tendency to:
a. withdraw a limb to escape pain.
b. turn the head away from a cloth placed over the face.
c. open the mouth in search of a nipple when touched on the cheek.
d. be startled by a loud noise.
e. look longer at human faces than at inanimate objects.
c. open the mouth in search of a nipple when touched on the cheek.
Mr. Hersch triggered a rooting reflex in his infant son by touching him on the:
a. foot.
b. knee.
c. arm.
d. cheek.
d. cheek.
Newborns have been observed to show the greatest visual interest in a:
a. rectangular shape.
b. circular shape.
c. bull’s-eye pattern.
d. drawing of a human face
d. drawing of a human face
When placed close to a gauze breast pad from their nursing mothers, week old babies are likely to:
a. move their eyes in a visual search for their mother.
b. turn their head toward the smell of their mother’s pad.
c. open their mouth in a vigorous search for a nipple.
d. do all the above.
b. turn their head toward the smell of their mother’s pad.
Habituation refers to the:
a. awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived.
b. decreasing responsiveness to a stimulus to which one is repeatedly exposed.
c. adjustment of current schemas to make sense of new information.
d. interpretation of new information in terms of existing schemas.
e. biological growth processes that are relatively uninfluenced by experience.
b. decreasing responsiveness to a stimulus to which one is repeatedly exposed.
Maturation refers to:
a. the acquisition of socially acceptable behaviors.
b. biological growth processes that are relatively uninfluenced by experience.
c. any learned behavior patterns that accompany personal growth and development.
d. the physical and sexual development of early adolescence.
b. biological growth processes that are relatively uninfluenced by experience.
Maturation is to education as ________ is to ________.
a. accommodation; assimilation
b. learning; experience
c. nature; nurture
d. imprinting; critical period
e. environment; learning
c. nature; nurture
The relative lack of neural interconnections in the brain at the time of birth most directly contributes to:
a. poor memory for early life experiences.
b. decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation.
c. an inability to take another person’s point of view.
d. the fear of strangers commonly displayed by infants.
e. infantile amnesia.
a. poor memory for early life experiences.
Four year old Karen can’t remember anything of the first few months of her life. This is best explained by the fact that:
a. the trauma of birth interfered with the subsequent formation of memories.
b. most brain cells do not yet exist at the time of birth.
c. experiences shortly after birth are a meaningless blur of darkness and light.
d. many neural connections that underlie memories are only beginning to form shortly after birth.
d. many neural connections that underlie memories are only beginning to form shortly after birth.
Despite their poor memories of early life experiences, 11-month-olds are still capable of:
a. imitating actions they observe others perform three months earlier.
b. remembering the trauma of their own birth.
c. retaining lifelong memories of sexual abuse.
d. all the above.
a. imitating actions they observe others perform three months earlier.
Infant motor development is typically characterized by individual differences in ________ of the major developmental milestones.
a. both the sequence and the age-related timing
b. the sequence but not the age-related timing
c. the age-related timing but not the sequence
d. neither the sequence nor the age-related timing
c. the age-related timing but not the sequence
Timmy, the youngest child of a high school athletic director, was able to roll over at 3 months, crawl at 6 months, and walk at 12 months. This ordered sequence of motor development was largely due to:
a. habituation.
b. maturation.
c. responsive parenting.
d. imprinting.
b. maturation.
Mr. and Mrs. Batson can’t wait to begin toilet-training their year-old daughter. The Batsons most clearly need to be informed about the importance of:
a. imprinting.
b. habituation.
c. fluid intelligence.
d. maturation.
e. object permanence.
d. maturation.
Piaget is best known for his interest in the process of ________ development.
a. motor
b. social
c. cognitive
d. emotional
e. physical
c. cognitive
According to Piaget, schemas are:
a. fixed sequences of cognitive developmental stages.
b. children’s ways of coming to terms with their sexuality.
c. people’s conceptual frameworks for understanding their experiences.
d. problem solving strategies that are typically not developed until the formal operational stage.
c. people’s conceptual frameworks for understanding their experiences.
Infants develop a fear of strangers at about 8 months of age because they can’t assimilate unfamiliar faces into their
A) schemas.
B) attachments.
C) theory of mind.
D) self-concept.
A) schemas.
Difficult babies with an intense and highly reactive temperament tend to be
A) intelligent and imaginative.
B) irritable and unpredictable.
C) fearless and assertive.
D) extraverted and cheerful.
B) irritable and unpredictable.
Rita expected all college professors to be old, bearded males. She found it difficult to recognize young Kim Lee as a legitimate professor due to her own:
a. egocentrism.
b. stranger anxiety.
c. insecure attachment.
d. inadequate schema.
d. inadequate schema.
Interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schemas is called:
a. egocentrism.
b. assimilation.
c. imprinting.
d. attachment.
e. accommodation.
b. assimilation.
The first time that 4 year old Sarah saw her older brother play a flute, she thought it was simply a large whistle. Sarah’s initial understanding of the flute best illustrates the process of:
a. assimilation.
b. egocentrism.
c. conservation.
d. accommodation.
e. maturation.
a. assimilation.
According to Piaget, accommodation refers to:
a. parental efforts to include new children in the existing family structure.
b. incorporating new experiences into existing schemas.
c. developmental changes in a child’s behavior that facilitate social acceptance by family and peers.
d. adjusting current schemas in order to make sense of new experiences.
d. adjusting current schemas in order to make sense of new experiences.
Nageeb thought all nurses were young females until a middle aged male nurse took care of him. Nageeb’s altered conception of a “nurse” illustrates the process of:
a. habituation.
b. assimilation.
c. accommodation.
d. attachment.
e. imprinting.
c. accommodation.
Incorporating new information into existing theories is to ________ as modifying existing theories in light of new information is to ________.
a. conservation; habituation
b. imprinting; maturation
c. object permanence; insecure attachment
d. sensorimotor stage; preoperational stage
e. assimilation; accommodation
e. assimilation; accommodation
Which of the following represents the correct order of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development?
a. preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational, sensorimotor
b. sensorimotor, preoperational, formal operational, concrete operational
c. sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
d. preoperational, sensorimotor, concrete operational, formal operational
e. concrete operational, sensorimotor, preoperational, formal operational
c. sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
Cindy understands her world primarily by grasping and sucking easily available objects. Cindy is clearly in Piaget’s ________ stage.
a. preoperational
b. concrete operational
c. sensorimotor
d. formal operational
c. sensorimotor
During which of Piaget’s stages does a person develop an awareness that things continue to exist even when they are not perceived?
a. sensorimotor
b. preoperational
c. concrete operational
d. formal operational
a. sensorimotor
When Tommy’s mother hides his favorite toy under a blanket, he acts as though it no longer exists and makes no attempt to retrieve it. Tommy is clearly in Piaget’s ________ stage.
a. sensorimotor
b. formal operational
c. concrete operational
d. preoperational
a. sensorimotor
After sucking one of two differently shaped pacifiers, 1-month-old infants have been observed to look longer at the nipple they felt in their mouth. This suggests that Piaget:
a. overestimated the continuity of cognitive development.
b. underestimated the cognitive capacities of infants.
c. overestimated the impact of culture on infant intelligence.
d. underestimated the impact of object permanence on infant attachment.
b. underestimated the cognitive capacities of infants.
When researcher Karen Wynn (1992, 1995) showed 5-month-old infants a numerically impossible outcome, the infants:
a. stared longer at the outcome.
b. displayed rapid habituation.
c. demonstrated an obvious lack of object permanence.
d. showed signs of formal operational reasoning.
a. stared longer at the outcome.
According to Piaget, a child can represent things with words and images but cannot reason with logic during the ________ stage.
a. concrete operational
b. sensorimotor
c. formal operational
d. preoperational
d. preoperational
If children cannot grasp the principle of conservation, they are unable to:
a. deal with the discipline of toilet training.
b. see things from the point of view of another person.
c. recognize that the quantity of a substance remains the same despite changes in its shape.
d. retain earlier schemas when confronted by new experiences.
c. recognize that the quantity of a substance remains the same despite changes in its shape.
Mrs. Pearson cut Judy’s hot dog into eight pieces and Sylvia’s into six pieces. Sylvia cried because she felt she wasn’t getting as much hot dog as Judy. Piaget would say that Sylvia doesn’t understand the principle of:
a. object permanence.
b. conservation.
c. assimilation.
d. egocentrism.
e. accommodation.
b. conservation.
According to Piaget, egocentrism refers to:
a. a sensorimotor need for self stimulation as evidenced in thumb sucking.
b. young children’s exaggerated interest in themselves and their own pleasure.
c. the inability to perceive things from another person’s point of view.
d. the inability to realize that things continue to exist even when they are not visible
c. the inability to perceive things from another person’s point of view.
Four-year-old Jennifer mistakenly believes that her mother would like to receive a toy doll as a Christmas present. This best illustrates Piaget’s concept of:
a. accommodation.
b. attachment.
c. object permanence.
d. conservation.
e. egocentrism.
e. egocentrism.
A tendency to exaggerate the extent to which our own opinions are shared by others best illustrates:
a. egocentrism.
b. habituation.
c. conservation.
d. accommodation.
a. egocentrism.
An impaired theory of mind is most closely associated with:
a. habituation.
b. crystallized intelligence.
c. an insecure attachment.
d. adolescence.
e. autism.
e. autism.
Preschoolers’ acquisition of a theory of mind suggests that Piaget overestimated young children’s:
a. accommodation.
b. egocentrism.
c. habituation.
d. stranger anxiety.
e. sense of object permanence.
b. egocentrism.
Sharon can clearly sense when her sister’s teasing is intended to be friendly fun or a hostile put-down. This best illustrates that Sharon has developed a(n):
a. sense of object permanence.
b. insecure attachment.
c. concept of conservation.
d. theory of mind.
d. theory of mind.
According to Piaget, the ability to think logically about visible and tangible events first develops during the ________ stage.
a. sensorimotor
b. formal operational
c. concrete operational
d. preoperational
c. concrete operational
According to Piaget, children come to understand that the volume of a substance remains constant despite changes in its shape during the ________ stage.
a. sensorimotor
b. preoperational
c. concrete operational
d. formal operational
c. concrete operational
According to Piaget, egocentrism is to conservation as the ________ stage is to the ________ stage.
a. preoperational; sensorimotor
b. concrete operational; preoperational
c. sensorimotor; preoperational
d. concrete operational; formal operational
e. preoperational; concrete operational
e. preoperational; concrete operational
According to Piaget, a person first comprehends that division is the reverse of multiplication during the ________ stage.
a. preoperational
b. concrete operational
c. formal operational
d. sensorimotor
b. concrete operational
According to Piaget, during the formal operational stage people begin to:
a. reason abstractly.
b. adhere to social norms.
c. distinguish between good and bad behaviors.
d. become aware of the positive and negative consequences of their own behaviors.
a. reason abstractly.
Four year olds are not completely egocentric and 5 year olds can exhibit some understanding of conservation. This indicates that Piaget may have underestimated the:
a. importance of critical periods in early life.
b. role of motivation in cognitive development.
c. continuity of cognitive development.
d. importance of early attachment experiences.
c. continuity of cognitive development.
Lilianne is beginning to develop a fear of strangers and will reach for her mother when she sees someone who is unfamiliar. It is likely that Lilianne is simultaneously:
a. mastering the principle of conservation.
b. overcoming the limitation of egocentrism.
c. developing a sense of object permanence.
d. losing her sense of secure attachment.
c. developing a sense of object permanence.
The powerful survival impulse that leads infants to seek closeness to their caregivers is called:
a. attachment.
b. imprinting.
c. habituation.
d. assimilation.
e. the rooting reflex.
a. attachment.
Little Karen will approach and play with unfamiliar animals only if her mother first reassures her that it is safe to do so. This best illustrates the adaptive value of:
a. conservation.
b. attachment.
c. habituation.
d. egocentrism.
e. imprinting.
b. attachment.
Studies of monkeys raised with artificial mothers suggest that mother infant emotional bonds result primarily from mothers providing infants with:
a. adequate nourishment.
b. body contact.
c. the opportunity to explore.
d. protection from harm.
e. self esteem
b. body contact.
Providing children with a safe haven in times of stress contributes most directly to:
a. habituation.
b. stranger anxiety.
c. object permanence.
d. secure attachment.
e. egocentrism.
d. secure attachment.
A critical period is a phase during which:
a. children frequently disobey and resist their parents.
b. children become able to think hypothetically and reason abstractly.
c. parents frequently show impatience with a child’s slowness in becoming toilet trained.
d. certain events have a particularly strong impact on development.
d. certain events have a particularly strong impact on development.
Which of the following is an example of imprinting?
a. A 2 year old poodle approaches a stranger who calls it.
b. A 4 year old boy imitates aggression he sees on television.
c. A duckling demonstrates attachment to a bouncing ball.
d. A 3 year old girl is simultaneously learning two different languages.
c. A duckling demonstrates attachment to a bouncing ball.
Carol is distressed because post childbirth complications prevented her from being in close physical contact with her child during its first few hours of life. Carol should be told that:
a. human infants do not have well defined critical periods for the formation of a mother infant attachment.
b. physical contact with her infant immediately after birth would not contribute to the development of mother infant attachment.
c. infants should be left physically undisturbed during the first few hours of life so they can rest.
d. as long as she can breast feed her baby, no lasting damage will be done.
a. human infants do not have well defined critical periods for the formation of a mother infant attachment.
One-year-old Eunice is not overly fearful of strangers but she clearly prefers to be held by her mother than by anyone else. Her behavior best illustrates:
a. habituation.
b. the rooting reflex.
c. secure attachment.
d. conservation.
e. egocentrism.
c. secure attachment.
Instead of happily exploring the attractive toys located in the pediatrician’s waiting room, little Sandra tenaciously clings to her mother’s skirt. Sandra most clearly shows signs of:
a. habituation.
b. egocentrism.
c. insecure attachment.
d. the rooting reflex.
e. object permanence.
c. insecure attachment.
Aaron was extremely upset when his mother left him in the infant nursery at church and he was not reassured or comforted by her return a short while later. Aaron showed signs of:
a. egocentrism.
b. habituation.
c. conservation.
d. assimilation.
e. insecure attachment.
e. insecure attachment.
In a pleasant but unfamiliar setting, infants with a secure maternal attachment are most likely to:
a. act as though their mothers are of little importance to them.
b. use their mothers as a base from which to explore the new surroundings.
c. cling to their mothers and ignore the new surroundings.
d. show hostility when their mothers approach them after a brief absence.
b. use their mothers as a base from which to explore the new surroundings.
Nature is to nurture as ________ is to ________.
a. secure attachment; imprinting
b. heredity; maturation
c. accommodation; assimilation
d. temperament; responsive parenting
d. temperament; responsive parenting
Which of the following factors contributes most positively to the development of secure attachment between human infants and their mothers?
a. breast-feeding
b. responsive parenting
c. family planning
d. authoritarian discipline
b. responsive parenting
Some mothers feed their infants faster than they can comfortably swallow, whereas others carefully adjust the pace of feeding to their baby’s natural rate of consumption. These different maternal feeding practices are most likely to contribute to differences in infant:
a. habituation.
b. attachment.
c. conservation.
d. maturation.
e. egocentrism
b. attachment.
A mother who is slow in responding to her infant’s cries of distress is most likely to encourage:
a. habituation.
b. conservation.
c. insecure attachment.
d. object permanence.
e. egocentrism.
c. insecure attachment.
Children’s sense that their parents are trustworthy and dependable is most indicative of:
a. maturation.
b. accommodation.
c. secure attachment.
d. object permanence.
e. habituation.
c. secure attachment.
Carol resents the burdens and constraints of caring for her infant daughter and frequently ignores her cries for attention. As a consequence, her daughter is most likely to display signs of:
a. egocentrism.
b. accommodation.
c. habituation.
d. insecure attachment.
e. conservation.
d. insecure attachment.
Two-year-old Anna perceives her parents as cold and rejecting. This is most indicative of:
a. habituation.
b. egocentrism.
c. accommodation.
d. crystallized intelligence.
e. insecure attachment.
e. insecure attachment.
When placed in strange situations without their artificial mothers, Harlow’s infant monkeys demonstrated signs of:
a. insecure attachment.
b. egocentrism.
c. basic trust.
d. curiosity.
a. insecure attachment.
Three year old Angela has a history of being securely attached to her mother. It is most likely that Angela is:
a. unusually intelligent but also highly anxious.
b. easily frustrated and irritable when her mother is absent.
c. preoccupied with maintaining close physical contact with her mother.
d. outgoing and successful in her interactions with other children.
d. outgoing and successful in her interactions with other children.
Marlys is a sensitive, responsive parent who consistently satisfies the needs of Sara, her infant daughter. According to Erikson, Sara is likely to:
a. form a lifelong attitude of basic trust toward the world.
b. encounter some difficulty in overcoming the limitation of egocentrism.
c. encounter some difficulty in forming an attachment to her father.
d. achieve formal operational intelligence more quickly than the average child
a. form a lifelong attitude of basic trust toward the world.
Edith abuses both her 3 year old and 1 year old daughters. Her behavior is most likely related to a lack of:
a. childhood experience with younger brothers and sisters.
b. maturation.
c. an early and secure attachment to her own parents.
d. formal operational intelligence.
e. object permanence.
c. an early and secure attachment to her own parents.
For several months following a sudden and unexpected divorce, Henry was excessively preoccupied with thoughts of his ex-wife. His reaction resulted from the disruption of:
a. a critical period.
b. habituation.
c. accommodation.
d. object permanence.
e. attachment.
e. attachment.
Research comparing parental care in the home with professional day-care programs outside the home indicates that:
a. the quality of child care is more important than whether it is provided inside or outside the home.
b. professional day care is more appropriate for infants than for older preschool children.
c. children who receive professional day care actually spend more quality time each day with their parents.
d. all the above are true.
a. the quality of child care is more important than whether it is provided inside or outside the home.
In considering day-care opportunities for their four children, Mr. and Mrs. Taylor should be most concerned about whether the experience will influence:
a. egocentrism in their 3-year-old son, James.
b. object permanence in their 2-year-old son, Billy.
c. secure attachment in their 6-month-old daughter, Julia.
d. self-esteem in their 4-year-old daughter, Sandra.
c. secure attachment in their 6-month-old daughter, Julia.
Authoritarian parents demonstrate ________ levels of parental control and ________ levels of parental responsiveness.
a. high; high
b. low; low
c. high; low
d. low; high
c. high; low
The McDougals use harsh discipline on their children and demand unquestioning obedience. Psychologists are likely to characterize the McDougals as ________ parents.
a. authoritarian
b. egocentric
c. disengaged
d. authoritative
a. authoritarian
Parents who are demanding and yet sensitively responsive to their children are said to be:
a. authoritarian.
b. accommodating.
c. egocentric.
d. permissive.
e. authoritative.
e. authoritative.
Compared to authoritarian parents, authoritative parents are likely to be:
a. more conservative.
b. less educated.
c. more responsive.
d. less trusting.
c. more responsive.
Authoritative parents are likely to have children who:
a. are obedient but have low self esteem.
b. have high self esteem and are self reliant.
c. have high self esteem but are somewhat dependent.
d. are rebellious and have low self esteem.
b. have high self esteem and are self reliant.
Children are likely to experience the greatest sense of personal control over their lives if their parents are:
a. permissive.
b. disengaged.
c. authoritarian.
d. authoritative.
d. authoritative.
At age 12, Jeff is happy, self reliant, and has a positive self image. It is most likely that Jeff’s parents are:
a. permissive.
b. conservative.
c. authoritarian.
d. authoritative.
d. authoritative.
Contemporary developmental psychologists believe that:
a. adult personality is determined primarily by the experiences of infancy.
b. personality is modified during adolescent development.
c. personality changes very little after childhood maturation.
d. adolescent development has a greater impact on adult personality than does infant and childhood development.
b. personality is modified during adolescent development.
Adolescence extends from:
a. the beginning of concrete operations to the end of formal operations.
b. 12 to 15 years of age.
c. the beginnings of sexual maturity to independent adulthood.
d. the beginning to the end of the growth spurt.
c. the beginnings of sexual maturity to independent adulthood.
In contemporary Western societies, adolescence typically begins ________ in life and ends ________ in life than it did in previous centuries.
a. earlier; earlier
b. later; earlier
c. earlier; later
d. later; later
c. earlier; later
People experience surging physical growth and sexual maturation during:
a. late adolescence.
b. puberty.
c. the preoperational stage.
d. late childhood.
b. puberty.
Compared to “late bloomers,” boys who mature sexually at an early age tend to be more:
a. physically uncoordinated.
b. sexually inhibited.
c. popular and self assured.
d. academically successful.
c. popular and self assured.
Ten year old Heidi is maturing early and already towers over all the girls and most of the boys in her fifth grade class. Heidi is likely to be:
a. the most popular student in class.
b. self assured and independent.
c. challenging her teacher’s authority.
d. the object of some teasing.
d. the object of some teasing.
The ability to think logically about hypothetical situations is indicative of the ________ stage of development.
a. conventional
b. preconventional
c. preoperational
d. formal operational
d. formal operational
Fourteen year old Lisa was asked, “What would happen if everyone in the world suddenly went blind?” She responded, “Those who had previously been blind would become leaders.” Lisa’s answer indicates she is in the ________ stage of development.
a. concrete operational
b. preconventional
c. postconventional
d. formal operational
e. preoperational
d. formal operational
Piaget is to cognitive development as Kohlberg is to ________ development.
a. emotional
b. physical
c. moral
d. social
c. moral
Kohlberg emphasized that human behavior becomes less selfish due to:
a. social development.
b. physical development.
c. cognitive development.
d. economic development.
c. cognitive development.
According to Kohlberg, morality based on the avoidance of punishment and the attainment of concrete rewards represents a(n) ________ morality.
a. egocentric
b. conventional
c. preconventional
d. concrete operational
e. postconventional
c. preconventional
A person who does not cheat on her income tax because she might get caught and sent to jail is demonstrating Kohlberg’s ________ stage of morality.
a. conventional
b. postconventional
c. preconventional
d. preoperational
e. formal operational
c. preconventional
Mr. Stevens, a prominent businessman, regularly votes in local elections because he wants his friends and relatives to think well of him. Mr. Stevens’s motivation illustrates Kohlberg’s ________ stage.
a. postconventional
b. formal operational
c. egocentric
d. conventional
e. preconventional
d. conventional
According to Kohlberg, postconventional morality involves:
a. behavior based on self interest.
b. affirmation of self defined ethical principles.
c. strong concern for social approval.
d. unquestioning obedience to authority figures.
b. affirmation of self defined ethical principles.
Mr. Lambers refuses to pay income taxes because his conscience will not allow him to support a government that spends billions of dollars on military weapons. Mr. Lambers’s reasoning best illustrates Kohlberg’s ________ stage.
a. postconventional
b. concrete operational
c. preconventional
d. egocentric
e. conventional
a. postconventional
Joshua and Ann Bishop have a 13-month-old boy. According to Erikson, the Bishops’ sensitive, loving care of their
child contributes to:
A) the child’s sense of basic trust.
B) the child’s secure attachment.
C) the child’s sense of control.
d/) both a and
A) the child’s sense of basic trust.
Avoiding physical punishment is to ________ morality as gaining social approval is to ________ morality.
a. conventional; postconventional
b. preconventional; postconventional
c. postconventional; conventional
d. conventional; preconventional
e. preconventional; conventional
e. preconventional; conventional
Avoiding physical punishment is to ________ morality as respecting the laws of society is to ________ morality.
A) conventional; postconventional
B) preconventional; postconventional
C) postconventional; conventional
D) conventional; preconventional
E) preconventional; conventional
E) preconventional; conventional
Even though smoking marijuana would reduce the pain associated with her chronic medical condition, Juanita believes it would be morally wrong because it is prohibited by the laws of her state. Kohlberg would suggest that Juanita demonstrates a(n) _______ morality.
A) conventional
B) unconventional
C) preconventional
D) postconventional
A) conventional
Critics of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development have suggested that postconventional morality is more characteristic of ________ than of ________.
a. men; women
b. Democrats; Republicans
c. socialists; capitalists
d. African Americans; white Americans
e. Catholics; Protestants
a. men; women
The corrupt behavior of many ordinary people who served as Nazi concentration camp guards best illustrates that immorality often results from:
a. social influence.
b. crystallized intelligence.
c. abnormal cognitive development.
d. postconventional moral thinking.
a. social influence.
According to Erikson, achieving a sense of identity is the special task of the:
a. toddler.
b. preschooler.
c. elementary school child.
d. adolescent.
d. adolescent.
According to Erikson, trust is to ________ as identity is to ________.
a. infancy; childhood
b. childhood; adolescence
c. adulthood; childhood
d. adolescence; adulthood
e. infancy; adolescence
e. infancy; adolescence
According to Erikson, isolation is to intimacy as role confusion is to:
a. mistrust.
b. guilt.
c. competence.
d. inferiority.
e. identity.
e. identity.
Erikson would have suggested that adolescents can most effectively develop a sense of identity by:
a. seeking a lifelong romantic relationship.
b. severing the emotional ties between themselves and their childhood friends.
c. investigating the personal suitability of various occupational roles.
d. adopting whatever values and expectations their parents recommend.
c. investigating the personal suitability of various occupational roles.
Sixteen year old Brenda questions her parents’ values but does not fully accept her friends’ standards either. Her confusion about what she really wants and values in life suggests that Brenda is struggling with the problem of:
a. autonomy.
b. identity.
c. initiative.
d. integrity
b. identity.
Branden is so apathetic about his occupational future that within two years of his high school graduation he had already been fired by four different employers. According to Erikson, Branden best illustrates:
a. crystallized intelligence.
b. preconventional morality.
c. role confusion.
d. egocentrism.
c. role confusion.
As individuals progress through adolescence, their sense of identity becomes ________ positive and ________ consistent.
a. more; less
b. less; more
c. more; more
d. less; less
c. more; more
Erikson suggested that the adolescent search for identity is followed by a developing capacity for:
a. competence.
b. intimacy.
c. autonomy.
d. trust.
b. intimacy.
Physical abilities such as muscular strength, reaction time, sensory keenness, and cardiac output reach their peak during:
a. late adolescence.
b. early adulthood.
c. puberty.
d. middle adulthood.
b. early adulthood.
Lewis is a 70 year old retired college professor. In contrast to when he was 30, he now probably:
a. does not hear as well.
b. is more susceptible to catching the flu.
c. has significantly fewer neural connections.
d. has all the above problems.
a. does not hear as well.
Elderly people are not increasingly susceptible to:
a. pneumonia.
b. Parkinson’s disease.
c. common cold viruses.
d. dementia
c. common cold viruses.
Most Americans over 65 years of age believe that:
a. they suffer fewer health problems than do other people their age.
b. they do not have enough money to live on.
c. their hearing and vision are just as good as when they were young adults.
d. their lives are less satisfying now than when they were adolescents.
a. they suffer fewer health problems than do other people their age.
Research on the elderly has shown that:
a. they grow increasingly fearful of death.
b. they become increasingly prone to car accidents.
c. most eventually become senile.
d. they experience less life satisfaction than younger adults.
b. they become increasingly prone to car accidents.
Haidt’s social intuitionist account highlights the impact of automatic gut-level feelings on:
a.)attachment.
b.)habituation.
c.)egocentrism.
d.)moral judgments.
e.)stranger anxiety.
d.)moral judgments.
Many people would find it more morally repulsive to kill someone by thrusting a knife into his or her body than by shooting him or her with a gun from a distance. This is best explained in terms of:
A) Erikson’s psychosocial development theory.
B) Piaget’s cognitive development theory.
C) Haidt’s social intuitionist theory.
D) Kohlberg’s moral development theory.
C) Haidt’s social intuitionist theory.
When adults of varying ages were tested for their memory of a list of 24 words, the older adults demonstrated:
a. no decline in either recall or recognition.
b. a decline in recognition but not in recall.
c. a decline in recall but not in recognition.
d. a decline in both recognition and recall.
c. a decline in recall but not in recognition.
On which of the following tasks is a 20 year old most likely to outperform a 70 year old?
a. recalling previously presented nonsense syllables
b. recognizing previously presented foreign language words
c. recalling previously presented names of cities
d. recognizing previously presented names of fruits and vegetables
a. recalling previously presented nonsense syllables
Differences in learning and memory abilities are greatest among people during:
a. late adolescence.
b. early adulthood.
c. middle adulthood.
d. later adulthood.
d. later adulthood.
A cross-sectional study is one in which:
a. the same people are retested over a period of years.
b. different age groups are tested at the same time.
c. different characteristics of a given individual are assessed at the same time.
d. the behavior of a group is assessed by different researchers.
b. different age groups are tested at the same time.
A researcher who administers a personality test to the same children every 3 years as they progress through school is conducting a(n) ________ study.
a. longitudinal
b. experimental
c. cross sectional
d. chronological
a. longitudinal
Researchers have discovered that the transition phase between early and middle adulthood is characterized by unusually high levels of:
a. job dissatisfaction and career change.
b. marital dissatisfaction and divorce.
c. anxiety and emotional instability.
d. all the above.
e. none of the above.
e. none of the above.
The age at which people are expected to leave home, get a job, and marry has changed dramatically in Wallonia over the past 50 years. Developmentalists would say that the country’s ________ has been altered.
a. social clock
b. developmental norm
c. maturation cycle
d. family calendar
a. social clock
Those who criticize theories of age-linked adult developmental stages are most likely to emphasize the importance of ________ on adult development.
a. fluid intelligence
b. genetic predispositions
c. secondary sex characteristics
d. formal operational thought
e. the social clock
e. the social clock
After living together for a year, Sylvia and Yefim have decided to marry. Research on premarital cohabitation most strongly suggests that:
a. they have more positive attitudes toward the institution of marriage than the average couple.
b. their marriage will have a higher-than-average probability of being successful.
c. most of their college friends and acquaintances have viewed their cohabitation negatively.
d. their marriage will have a higher-than-average probability of ending in divorce.
d. their marriage will have a higher-than-average probability of ending in divorce.
The best predictor of a couple’s marital satisfaction is the:
a. frequency of their sexual intimacy.
b. intensity of their passionate feelings.
c. ratio of their positive to negative interactions with each other.
d. experience or nonexperience of a prior marriage.
c. ratio of their positive to negative interactions with each other.
Compared to middle-aged adults, adolescents express ________ levels of life satisfaction and the elderly express ________ levels of life satisfaction.
a. higher; higher
b. lower; lower
c. similar; similar
d. higher; lower
e. lower; higher
c. similar; similar
Compared to middle aged adults, elderly people are ________ likely to experience intensely positive emotions and ________ likely to experience intensely negative emotions.
a. more; less
b. less; more
c. more; more
d. less; less
e. equally; equally
d. less; less
Compared to when she was an adolescent, elderly Mrs. Packer is likely to experience a happy mood for a ________ period of time and a sad mood for a ________ period of time.
a. shorter; longer
b. longer; shorter
c. shorter; shorter
d. longer; longer
d. longer; longer
According to Erikson, an older adult who feels his or her life has been satisfying, meaningful, and worthwhile has achieved a sense of:
a. integrity.
b. autonomy.
c. identity.
d. intimacy
a. integrity.
According to Erikson, adolescence is to identity as late adulthood is to:
a. integrity.
b. autonomy.
c. generativity.
d. intimacy.
a. integrity.
Abdul, a 70-year-old retired teacher, feels that his life has not been of any real value or significance. According to Erikson, Abdul has failed to achieve a sense of:
a. basic trust.
b. intimacy.
c. autonomy.
d. integrity.
d. integrity.
Mary believes that cognitive development is a matter of gradual and almost imperceptible changes over time. Her viewpoint is most directly relevant to the issue of:
a. nature or nurture.
b. behavior or mental processes.
c. continuity or stages.
d. rationality or irrationality.
c. continuity or stages.
Psychologists who view the developmental process as a sequence of distinct stages generally believe that ________ is(are) the same for everyone.
a. both the order and the timing of the stages
b. the order but not the timing of the stages
c. the timing but not the order of the stages
d. neither the order nor the timing of the stages
b. the order but not the timing of the stages
Theories of human development have been most susceptible to criticism for overemphasizing:
a. discrete age-linked stages.
b. the interaction of nature and nurture.
c. maturation during adolescent development.
d. cognitive changes during adulthood development.
a. discrete age-linked stages.
A belief that adult personality is completely determined in early childhood years would be most relevant to the issue of:
a. continuity or stages.
b. stability or change.
c. fluid or crystallized intelligence.
d. conventional or postconventional morality.
e. cross-sectional or longitudinal studies.
b. stability or change.
Questions about whether anxious children will grow up to be either fearful or relaxed adults most directly highlight the issue of:
a. continuity of stages.
b. stability or change.
c. rationality or irrationality.
d. nature or nurture.
b. stability or change.
The fact that many happy and well adjusted adults were once rebellious and unhappy as adolescents is most relevant to the issue of:
a. continuity or stages.
b. preconventional or postconventional morality.
c. fluid or crystallized intelligence.
d. stability or change.
e. nature or nurture.
d. stability or change.
Killing one person in order to save five by throwing a switch that diverts a runaway trolley is judged as more morally acceptable than killing one person in order to save five by pushing a stranger directly into the path of the oncoming trolley. This best illustrates that moral judgments may reflect:
A) fluid intelligence.
B) gut-level intuitions.
C) stranger anxiety.
D) insecure attachments.
E) formal operational thought.
B) gut-level intuitions.
In an experiment, children see a doll named Sally leave her ball in a red cupboard and go away. They then observe another doll, Anne, move the ball to a different location. In asking children where Sally will look for the ball upon her return, the investigators are testing the children’s:
A) habituation.
B) accommodation.
C) moral reasoning.
D) theory of mind.
E) stranger anxiety.
D) theory of mind.
Learning to delay gratification promotes
A) maturation.
B) empathy.
C) moral action.
D) autonomy
C) moral action.
An infant’s temperament refers most directly to its:
a. ability to learn.
b. physical attractiveness.
c. emotional excitability.
d. physical health.
e. sense of humor.
c. emotional excitability.
Pat is normally very restless and fidgety, whereas Shelley is usually quiet and easygoing. The two children apparently differ in:
a. brain maturation.
b. gender schemas.
c. erotic plasticity.
d. temperament.
e. physical health.
d. temperament.
A child’s temperament is likely to be:
a. difficult to observe.
b. stable over time.
c. a product of parenting style.
d. a reflection of their gender schemas.
b. stable over time.
x

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