Why is the heart called the double pump?
because it supplies to two systems (systemic and pulmonary)
What are the two systems the heart supplies?
systemic (body) and pulmonary (lungs)
How many chambers are there?
four: 2 atria 2 ventricles
Describe the heart’s shape
upside down backwards positioned cone?
Where is the heart located?
just off center of midline on left side, superior to diaphragm between lungs
What cavity is the heart contained in?
mediastinum
How is the heart connected to the diaphragm?
fused via pericaridium
What are the auricles?
ear-shaped flaps around the heart, two?
What is the covering around the heart?
pericardium
What are the serous membranes around the lungs called?
plura
what are the two main parts of the heart?
the base and the apex
Base
broad, posterior surface, left atrium
Apex
anterior, pointed tip, left of midline
Where is the apex located in relation to the base?
anterior and lateral
What are the three layers of the heart wall?
Epicardium, myocardium, endocardium
Epicardium
visceral layer of pericardium (made of epithelium and CT)
Myocardium
cardiac muscle tissue
Thickest layer
Endocardium
lines chambers and covers the valves
made of the same tissue that lines vessels: endothilium
What type of tissue is endothilium?
simple squamous epithelial tissue
What are the three layers of the pericardium?
fibrous pericardium, parietal pericardium, and visceral pericardium
Fibrous pericardium
adheres to diaphragm and roots of the large vessels
made of thicker CT for adhesions
Parietal pericardium
adheres to inner surface of fibrous pericardium (touches wall of heart
visceral pericardium
shared layer with heat wall, epicardium layer same thing
What is inbetween the parietal pericardium and the visceral pericardium
serous fluid for less friction
What are the layers of the tissues in the heart wall?
Epithelium, cardiac muscle (myocardium), and epithelium
Atria
receiving chambers
located superior and smaller than ventricles
How are the atria separated?
interatrial septum
What is the function of the atria
to catch blood and pump it into the ventricles
Ventricles
pumping chambers
inferior chambers that are larger and have thicker walls than atria
How are the ventricles separated?
via interventricular septum (myocarium layer mostly of the Left ventricle)
What is the function of the ventricles?
to pump blood out of the heart to respective locations
What are the external markings on the heart?
coronary sulcus, anterior interventricular sulcus, and posterior interventricular sulcus
Coronary sulcus
divides atria from ventricles
wraps around whole heart (runs horizontally)
The interventricular sulci
travel vertically (kind of) and have a lot of vessels in between to help with separating left and right ventricles
How many pulmonary veins are there?
four
Where do the pulmonary veins deliver blood?
Left atrium
Where do the superior and inferior vena cava deliver blood?
Right atrium
What do the auricles cover?
the atrium one on left one on right
Crista terminalis
C-shaped ridge on the posterior wall of the RA
Fossa ovalis
remnant of foramen ovale in fetal heart
Foamen Ovale
in fetal heart, hole between right atrium and left side of hear to allow blood to bipass the lungs (no air in womb)
Pectinate muscles
chunky muscles in lumen in heart
help with pulling in the valves?
Location of Left Atrium
more posteriorly places on base of heart
Which is the bigger atrium?
the right
Right Ventricle
pumps blood out of heart into pulmonary circuit via pulmonary trunk/artery
Valve between R atrium and ventricle
tricuspid valve (aka Right AV valve)
How many flaps does the tricuspid valve have?
three
The right ventricle….
makes most of the anterior surface of the heart
How does the pulmonary trunk branch?
into left and right, sending blood to the lungs
Trunk
word for large vessel that usually splits
trabeculae carneae
“columns of meat”
similar to spongy bone columns, in R ventricle
Chordae tendinae
collagen like fibers that connect the flaps of the valves to papillary muscles and helps hold them closed
Papillary Muscles
(nipple like) muscles that connect to tricuspid valve via chordae tendinae and anchor the valve flaps to the heart, pull it tight to prevent flaps from blowing out
Left ventricle
pumps blood out to the rest of the body (systemic circuit) via the aorta
Aorta
the large vessel (artery) that brings blood out of the heart into the rest of the body. has an arch and travels behind the pulmonary trunk
The left ventricle….
forms most of the inferior surface that sits on the diaphragm
Aortic semilunar valve
prevents blood from traveling back from the aorta into the ventricle again
bicuspid valve
aka mitral valve or Left AV valve
2 flaps that keep blood from traveling back into the left atrium from the left ventricle
How do the bicuspid valve flaps work?
via connections to the papillary muscles via the chordae tendinae
Like the Right ventricle, the Left ventricle also has
trabeculae carneae
Which ventricle has thicker walls? WHy?
the left, because it needs more force to pump blood to whole body vs the right just goes to the lungs which are nearby
What are all of the valves in the heart?
tricuspid, mitral (bicuspid), aortic, and pulmonary
Where is the pulmonary valve?
aka semilunar valve for the right ventricle from the pulmonary trunk, prevents blood from coming back in
How do the valves work?
with differences in pressure within the chambers and the use of papillary muscles for the Tri- and Bicuspid (aka mitral valve)
The semilunar valves are closed when
The ventricles are relaxing
The semilunar valves prevent backflow of blood into the _____.
ventricles
Which vessel carries oxygenated blood?
pulmonary vein
Which structure anchors the chordae tendinae of the atrioventricular valves?
The papillary muscles are extensions from the ventricular wall that connect to the chordae tendinae. Upon ventricular contraction, the papillary muscles contract to prevent the atrioventricular valves from everting into the atria.
Which layer of the heart wall is visceral pericardium?
epicardium
The parietal layer of the serous pericardium ______.
adheres to the inner surface of the fibrous pericardium
serous fluid in the pericardial cavity ______.
is secreted by the epithelial cells of both layers of the serous pericardium
Which surface of the heart is dominated by the left ventricle?
INFERIOR
The pericardial cavity lies between
the parietal pericardium and the visceral pericardium.
Which vessels drain into the right atrium?
Superior and inferior vena cava and the coronary sinus
Irregular ridges of muscle called trabeculae carneae are located within the walls of the ______.
ventricle
In the pericardial sac, the ________ lies directly deep to the fibrous pericardium.
parietal layer of the serous pericardium
The cusps of the valves of the heart are made of
endocardium.
Which areas of the heart are innervated by parasympathetic nerve fibers?
SA and AV nodes
Contraction of the ventricles begins
at the apex and proceeds superiorly.
What structures anchor the chordae tendineae?
papillary muscles
The body is represented spatially along the somatosensory cortex and motor cortex. This mapping is called ________.
???
Innervation of the extrinsic eye musculature occurs through which nerve?
trochlear
x

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