Potsdam Conference
meeting between Stalin, Churchill, and Truman to discuss post-WWII; compromise: each side would take reparations from its own occupation zone, divided up GER, created Council of Foreign Ministers; marked the end of wartime alliance
Clement Attlee
replaced Churchill as ENG prime minister
Council of Foreign Ministers
issues unsolved at Potsdam Conference were to be discussed in London 1945
Cold War
US and RUS engage in conflict, tension, and competition; undeclared war
disagreements between US/RUS
division of Europe, postwar economic aid, atomic bomb
control postwar Europe
fundamental disagreement between the 2 superpowers; RUS – Poland, Balkans, communist govt; US – self-determination
Iron Curtain
coined by Churchill; boundary divided Soviet-dominated eastern/central Europe from free western Europe
refused to permit RUS to take reparations from industrial West GER; merged zones and championed GER unification
communist regimes
replaced coalition govt in Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria; RUS consolidated grip on eastern Europe
climax; March 1948 coup overthrew democratic govt; gave RUS strategic foothold in central Europe
division of Europe
inevitable effect of WWII; caused by competing spheres of influence
WWII -> Russia
15-20 million dead; 30k factories and 40k railroad destroyed; industrialization and agricultural production fallen; needed aid and assistance to reconstruct
postwar assistance
2 forms of aid: loans (ignored) and Lend-Lease (ended)
Averell Harriman
said that economic aid was most effective weapon in dealing with RUS
Lend-Lease fails
Congress instructed not to use it for postwar reconstruction; Truman signed order terminating all shipments to RUS
atomic bomb
used by US in Nagasaki and Hiroshima; raised problems in Soviet-American relations; led to postwar nuclear arms race
Soviet atomic program
Stalin’s response to the Manhattan Project
disarmament plan
US plan to turn control of fissionable material, processing plants, and bombs over to international agency
Baruch Plan
disarmament plan with emphasis on multiple stages and inspection; would preserve US atomic monopoly for indefinite future; stressed inspection and control
Andrei Gromyko
RUS diplomat insisted on total ban on production and use of the new weapon and destruction of all existing bombs; advocated immediate disarmament
George Marshall
wartime army chief of staff became secretary of state; major departure in US foreign policy occurred as a result
Dean Acheson
appointed undersecretary of state; given free rein by Marshall to conduct US diplomacy; opposed appeasement; policy of negotiation only from strength; succeeded Marshall as secretary of state
George Kennan
Marshall’s other mainstay; headed newly created Policy Planning Staff; distrust for Soviet regime; advocated containment policy
named from Kennan’s article; policy consolidated evolving postwar anticommunism; established guidelines to shape US role in world; aimed at halting Soviet aggression and sustained resistance of RUS power
Greek Civil War
Greek govt fighting against communist guerrillas; initially aided by ENG; US eventually stepped in; first step towards containment
Truman Doctrine
Truman asked Congress for $400 million military/economic assistance to Greece and Turkey; assert US commitment to aid any free peoples against communism; informal declaration of cold war
western Europe
far more vital to US interests than eastern Mediterranean; vulnerable to Soviet penetration due to economic problems
WWII -; Europe
$9 billion US piecemeal loans; harsh economic recovery; scarce food; winter of 1947; broken industrial machinery; demoralized workers; resentment led to growing communist voting strength esp. in ITA and FRA
Marshall Plan
plan for massive infusion of US capital to finance economic recovery of Europe and ensure “free institutions”; RUS withdrew and did not take part
Czech coup
March 1948 war scare prompted Congress to quickly approve Marshal Plan
Brussels Treaty
ENG, FRA, and Low countries sign for collective self-defense
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
US, CAN, and 10 European nations form military mutual-defense pact; grew out of fears of RUS military aggression; third and final phase of containment; escalated Cold War; features: 1) US committed to defense of Europe 2) US honor commitment
Dwight Eisenhower
appointed NATO supreme commander
Berlin Blockade
RUS response to containment; cut off all rail and highway traffic to Berlin
Berlin airlift
massive airlift of food, fuel, and supplies for troops and civilians in Berlin
Berlin crisis
Truman won reelection; RUS eventually ended blockade; another Council of Foreign Ministers held and failed; marked end of initial phase of Cold War
rivalry between US and RUS grew
US military goals
reform: 1) US armed services unified into integrated military system 2) new institutions to coordinate military and diplomatic strategy to cope with threat
National Security Act
1947 Congress passed law establishing Department of Defense headed by cabinet secretary presiding over army, navy, and air force; created CIA and NSC
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
coordinated the intelligence-gathering activities of various govt agencies
National Security Council (NSC)
composed of service secretaries, secretary of defense, and secretary of state; advised the president on all matters regarding nation’s security
air force
quickly emerged as dominant power in atomic age; favored in military budget; new B-36 planes
hydrogen bomb
in response to RUS exploding its first atomic bomb; high-level committee appointed for all-out effort to maintain US nuclear supremacy; opposed on technical and moral grounds
Paul Nitze
headed Policy Planning Staff after Kennan resigned
Policy Planning Staff ordered by Acheson to draw up new statement of national defense policy; document committed the US to massive military buildup to meet RUS challenge; increased defense spending to $45 billion/yr; symbol of the Truman administration determination to win regardless of cost
US and RUS agreed to Far Eastern balance of power; RUS – Northeast Asia; US – Pacific and JAP; China between both spheres
Douglas MacArthur
in charge of JAP occupation; denied RUS involvement in reconstruction; supervised JAP govt transition into constitutional democracy
JAP constitution
constitutional democracy; communists barred from govt posts; renounced war; relied on US for security
trusteeship arrangement
agreement between US and United Nations; US held control over Marshall, Mariana, Caroline Is.; bomb tests at Bikini atoll
Chiang Kai-shek
leader of Chinese Nationalists in the South; backed by US and recognized by RUS; but corruption and inflation
Mao Tse-tung
leader of Chinese Communists in the North; hold over peasantry
Chiang vs. Mao
Marshall tried to mediate but both leaders unwilling to compromise over Manchuria
Chinese Civil War
Nationalists defeated and fled to Taiwan
Sino-Soviet treaty
Mao and Stalin signed treaty of mutual assistance; China placed under RUS influence
communism triumph in China
US response: 1) State Department refused to recognize China’s new regime; maintained relations with Nationalists in Taiwan 2) focused on JAP as main ally in Asia; buildup of JAP industry and US bases
Japanese-American security pact
led to end of US occupation of JAP in 1952
where showdown between US and RUS took place; divided at 38th parallel; North – industrial, communist, RUS-trained army; South – agrarian, conservative nationalist, limited US military assistance
Kim Il-Sung
leader of North Korea
Syngman Rhee
leader of South Korea
Korean War
with the support of Stalin and Mao; started by North Korean aggression; engaged UN in collective security action; US deployed troops in response
UN forces halted communist advance
MacArthur carried out brilliant amphibious assault, cutting off and destroying North Korean army
UN forces crossed 38th parallel; surprised by Chinese counterattack; driven out of North Korea
MacArthur’s recall
Truman gave up Korea’s unification; MacArthur’s Asian war against communism struck down by Congress; settled for stalemate at 38th parallel
Korean War effects
success: defense of South Korea, collective security; failure: confused Americans, embarrassment to the world; most significant: massive rearmament, NSC-68, increased budget, military bases
used growing dissatisfaction with postwar economy and fears of communism to revive its party and regain control of White House in 1952
Truman’s weaknesses
1) favored friends, appointed old cronies to office: Tom Clark, Charles Snyder, Harry Vaughn 2) lack of political vision, failure at coherent legislative program, battled with Congress over New Deal-esque measures
wartime controls end
prices and demand for higher wages rose; labor unrest
Great Strike Wave
labor unrest swept country in 1946; major strikes: 1) coal miners walkout threaten to close US industry 2) paralyzing railroad workers strike
No. 1 Strikebreaker
Truman gained reputation after he asked Congress for power to draft striking railway workers into the army
Employment Act
1946 legislation created Council of Economic Advisers
Council of Economic Advisers
assisted the president and asserted the principle that govt was responsible for state of economy
Taft Hartley Act
corrected imbalance in labor-management relations; outlawed specific labor union activities (closed shop, secondary boycotts); permitted president to invoke 8-day cooling-off to delay strikes
Henry Wallace
represented New Deal; announced 3rd party Progressive candidacy 1948
southern Democrats protesting progressive civil rights platform formed separate States’ Rights party 1948
Strom Thurmond
1948 States’ Rights presidential nominee
Thomas Dewey
1948 Republican presidential nominee
Roosevelt coalition
made up of farmers, organized labor, urban ethnic groups, and blacks; tended to vote Democratic
Election of 1948
Truman wins; Democrats control Congress
why Truman won
reasons: 1) Roosevelt coalition votes 2) GOP failure to challenge Truman/Cold War
fear of communism
where Democrats were vulnerable
fear of radicalism
recurrent feature in American life; appeared in Alien and Sedition Acts, Know Nothings, Red Scare, Cold War
communist espionage
reinforced fear of Soviet Union; sparked second Red Scare
House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
held hearings indicating that communist agents had flourished in the Agric. and Treasury departments
loyalty program
1947 Truman ordered security checks of govt employees to root out communists
Loyalty Review Board
dismissed workers as security risks if “reasonable doubt” of loyalty; thousands of govt workers lost jobs
Alger Hiss
accused by Whittaker Chambers as Soviet spy in 1930s; sentenced to 5 yrs prison
Justice Department
heightened fears of subversion; charged 11 officials of Communist party with advocating violent overthrow of govt; imprisoned and fined; Supreme Court upheld convictions as constitutional
Klaus Fuchs
British scientist admitted to giving RUS vital information about A-bomb
US communists charged with conspiracy to transmit atomic secrets to RUS; electrocuted
Joseph McCarthy
Republican senator accused many govt officials of being communists; never found substantial proof
sensational campaign against communists in govt; led to 4 yrs. of charges; contemporary name of the red scare of 1950s; imposed political and cultural conformity that froze dissent in 1950s
secret of McCarthy’s power
fear he engendered among colleagues; attack on wealthy famous and privileged attracted national following; backed by working class Catholics, ethnic groups, conservative Repiblicans
Millard Tydings
Maryland senator headed committee critical of McCarthy’s activities; was not elected as a result
Red Dean
Dean Acheson targeted by McCarthy
Korea stalemate and second Red Scare
national frustration created desire for political change; GOP rise
GOP candidate won Election of 1952; united divided nation; committed to end Korean war; gifted politician, diplomat, strategist
Election of 1952
Eisenhower won defeating Stevenson; Democrats still control but GOP made gains in Congress
Army-McCarthy hearings
McCarthy attacked upper echelons of US army; televised McCarthey’s bullying behavior; led to backlash and Senate’s censure of McCarthy in 1954
John Foster Dulles
chosen by Eisenhower as secretary of state; broad knowledge and skill in foreign policy but Eisenhower made major decisions
massive retaliation
part of Eisenhower’s “new look” defense policy; threaten nuclear weapons in response to any act of aggression
new look defense policy
Eisenhower cut back on army and navy, relied on air force, and implemented massive retaliation
first crisis Eisenhower met; US gave FRA military and economic aid during war
Ho Chi Minh
led communist guerrillas in Indochina
Ho’s forces
Dien Bien Phu
Vietminh surrounded 10k French troops deep in interior of Indochina; prompted FRA to ask US for help; eventually fell in May 1954
Arthur Radford
chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff
Radford’s plan
proposed US air strike to lift siege; but Eisenhower, Congress, and ENG reject intervention
Geneva conference
May 1954 after Dien Bien Phu’s fall; Indochina divided at 17th parallel; North – Ho; South – FRA
US gradually took over South Vietnam; sponsored new govt headed by Ngo Dinh Diem
Wiliam Knowland
Senator led Republicans in blaming Democrats for loss of China
firmness policy
Eisenhower and Dulles’ policy of containing Chinese expansion in Asia and drive wedge between Moscow and Peking
Formosa crisis
communist China threatened to seize coastal lands Quemoy and Matsu occupied by Nationalists; fear of invasion prompted US to sign security treaty committing US to defend Formosa; threatened nuclear weapons; Chinese backed down; RUS failure to respond led to growing rift
Suez crisis
gravest crisis for Eisenhower; 1956 Egyptian leader Gamal Nassar seized Suez Canal; ENG/FRA invaded Egypt and seized canal; Eisenhower opposed intervention and called for UN resolution; ENG/FRA eventually ended invasion; voters reelected Eisenhower; US replaced ENG and FRA as main Western influence in Middle East
divided between Christian and Muslim groups; Eisenhower had to interevene after Muslims threatened rebellion and nationalist coup overthrew pro-Western govt of Iraq
Camille Chamoun
Christian president sought second term, causing tensions
US marines and troops moved in Lebanon; show of force ended conflict
CIA instrumental in overthrowing popularly elected govt in Iran and placing shah in full control; rewarded US oil companies with lucrative concessions; created deep animosity among Iranians
CIA masterminded overthrow of leftist regime; denied RUS foothold in Western hemisphere; interventionist actions resented by Latin Americans
Fidel Castro
came to power in Cuba; sided with RUS
Eisenhower -> Cold War
positive: Korean War, Indochina, Formosa, Suez crisis; negative: CIA activities, Iran, Guatemala, failure to act on behalf of East GER protesters and Hungarian freedom fighters
both US and RUS had developed it by 1955; intensified fear of nuclear warfare; Eisenhower wanted to end arms race
atoms for peace plan
US wand RUS would donate fissionable material to new UN agency to be used for peaceful purposes; refused by RUS
open skies plan
US and RUS opened their territory to mutual aerial surveillance; rejected by Khrushchev
test ban treaty
concerns over nuclear testing polluting atmosphere; both sides agreed to suspend further testing temporarily
first artificial satellite to orbit the earth; intensified Cold War
intercontinental ballistic missiles
Polaris submarine-launched intermediate range missile
second Berlin crisis
Khrushchev sought separate peace treaty with East GER to end US, FRA, ENG occupation; Eisenhower refused to abandon city; RUS extended deadline indefinitely
Francis Gary Powers
piloted spy U-2 plane shot down by Soviets; aftermath caused Khrushchev’s refusal to attend summit conference
breakup of Paris summit
marked end of Eisenhower’s attempts to moderate Cold War
military-industrial complex
in farewell address Eisenhower warned about danger of massive defense spending and close relationship between armed forces and industrial corp. that supplied their weapons

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