David Riesman, The Lonely Crowd
Book written by David Riesman that criticized the people of the 50s who no longer made decisions based on morals, ethics and values; they were allowing society to tell them what was right and wrong.
“Beats”
A small but influential group of writers and poets challenged both the literary conventions of the day and the lifestyle of the middle class.
Jack Kerouac, On The Road
A book written by Jack Kerouac about a man who abandons New York and its intellectualism to seek enlightenment through unmeditated experience on the American road.
Saul Bellow
(1915-2005) Canadian-born American Jewish writer of beat movement. He wrote novels that investigated isolation, spiritual dissociation, and the possibilities of human awakening.
J. D. Salinger, The Catcher in the Rye
A book written by Salinger about a sixteen-year-old boy who goes to New York City where he reflects on the phoniness of adults and heads toward a nervous breakdown.
Michael Harrington, The Other America
This novel was an influential study of poverty in the United States, published in 1962 and it was a driving force behind the “war on poverty.” It stated that 1/5 of the population was living below the poverty line.
“Culture of poverty”
The view that people in the lower class of society form a separate culture with its own values and norms that are in conflict with those of conventional society.
“Urban renewal”
Program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private members, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities, and turn the land over to private developers.
“Juvenile delinquency”
behavior that is illegal under federal or state law that has been committed by a person who is under an age limit specified by statute.
John Foster Dulles
Eisenhower’s Sec. of State; harsh anti-Communist; called for more radical measures to roll back communism where it had already spread (containment too cautious)
“Roll back”
The term used to describe Eisenhower’s tough stance against communism, rolling it back to the USSR
“Massive Retaliation”
The “new look” defense policy of the Eisenhower administration of the 1950’s was to threaten “massive retaliation” with nuclear weapons in response to any act of aggression by a potential enemy.
“Brinksmanship”
The policy associated with Secretary of State John Foster Dulles that stressed that Soviet aggression would be met by massive nuclear retaliation; Dulles was opposed to simply containing the USSR and wanted to liberate the countries under Soviet control. The policy was the willingness to go to the brink of war to force an opponent to back down.
“more bang for the buck”
A popular slogan of the “new look” that was a defense policy aimed at cutting spending on conventional forces while increasing the budget for the Air Force and for nuclear weapons.
Thirty-eighth parallel
The thirty-eighth parallel of Korea was designed to be a political border, but not a permanent one, during the Korean War. It became an international boundary between a communist state in the north and a pro-Western state in the south.
Ho Chi-Minh
He was a Vietnamese Communist revolutionary and statesman who was prime minister and president of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. He also established the communist-governed Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945.
Dien Bien Phuhttp://quizlet.com/create_set/
In 1954, Vietminh rebels besieged a French garrison at Dien Bien Phu, deep in the interior of northern Vietnam. In May, after the United States refused to intervene, Dien Bien Phu fell to the communists.
Zionists
People who supported Zionism: Originally, the movement arising in the late nineteenth century that sought to re-establish a Jewish homeland; since 1948, the general support of the State of Israel.
Shah of Iran
The USA-backed leader of Iran who tried to westernize Iran, but was overthrown in 1979 by supporters of Ayatollah Khomeini.
Gamal Abdul Nasser
Dictator in Egypt who wants US to help build Aswan Dam while he’s also buying weapons from Soviets; nationalizes Suez Canal
Suez Crisis
Canal in Egypt, passage from Red Sea to Mediterranean; owned by England and France but Egypt wanted the land back; led to a war; US wanted to help Egypt get the land back but couldn’t go against the Allies
Fidel Castro
Cuban revolutionary leader who overthrew the regime of the dictator Fulgencio Batista in 1959 and soon after established a Communist state. He was Cuba’s prime minister from 1959 until 1976, when he became president of the government and First Secretary of the Communist Party.
Third World
Term applied to a group of developing countries who professed nonalignment during the Cold War.
Hungarian Revolution 1956
Led by students and workers, it installed Liberal Communist Imre Nagy. Forced soviet soldiers to leave and promised free election, renounced Hungary’s military alliance with Moscow. The revolution was crushed by the Soviet Union.
Nikita Khrushchev
He ruled the USSR from 1958-1964; lessened government control of soviet citizens; seeked peaceful coexistence with the West instead of confrontation.
U-2 Incident
The incident when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. The U.S. denied the true purpose of the plane at first, but was forced to when the U.S.S.R. produced the living pilot and the largely intact plane to validate their claim of being spied on aerially. The incident worsened East-West relations during the Cold War and was a great embarrassment for the United States.
“Military-industrial complex”
In Dwight D. Eisenhower’s farewell speech to the nation the retiring president warned of the dangers of allowing a Military-Industrial Complex to take control of the United States. The Military-Industrial Complex is a term that denotes a symbiotic relationship between a nation’s military, economy, and politics. The idea being that if the military becomes the biggest client for manufacturers then the nation will begin to invest more of its economy into military contracts. Politically, this leads to national budgets being heavily weighed in the military’s favor in order to support the economic stability that this relationship seems to create.
Birmingham
Alabama city against equal rights; peaceful marches in 1963 were broken up brutally by city police.
Governor George Wallace
Governor of Alabama; pledged to oppose integration and to prevent enrollment of blacks at state university; won popularity for his views.
“I Have a Dream”
Given August 1963 from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C. by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. during the March on Washington
“Wars of national liberation”
Wars of national liberation are conflicts fought by indigenous military groups against an imperial power in the name of self-determination, thus attempting to remove that power’s influence, in particular during the decolonization period. They are often founded in guerrilla warfare or asymmetric warfare, sometimes with intervention from other states.
“The Green Berets”
Elite unit of the U.S. Army specializing in counterinsurgency. The Green Berets came into being in 1952. They were active in the Vietnam War, and they have been sent to U.S.-supported governments around the world to help combat guerrilla insurgencies.
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