Richard Nixon
Elected President in 1968 and 1972 representing the Republican party. He was responsible for getting the United States out of the Vietnam War by using “Vietnamization”, which was the withdrawal of 540,000 troops from South Vietnam for an extended period. He was responsible for the Nixon Doctrine. Was the first President to ever resign, due to the Watergate scandal.
Spiro Agnew
Governor of Maryland who ran as Vice President with Richard Nixon in 1968. He was known for his tough stands against dissidents and black militants. He strongly supported Nixon’s desire to stay in Vietnam. He was forced to resign in October 1973 after having been accused of accepting bribes or “kickbacks” from Maryland contractors while governor and Vice President.
Henry Kissinger
Nixon’s national security adviser. He and his family escaped Hitler’s anti-Jewish persecutions. Former Harvard professor. In 1969, he had begun meeting secretly on Nixon’s behalf with North Vietnamese officials in Paris to negotiate an end to the war in Vietnam. He was also preparing the president’s path to Beijing and Moscow.
Warren Burger
the Supreme Court justice during the Nixon administration. He was chosen by Nixon because of his strict interpretation of the Constitution. He presided over the extremely controversial case of abortion in Roe vs. Wade.
George McGovern
A Senator from South Dakota who ran for President in 1972 on the Democrat ticket. His promise was to pull the remaining American troops out of Vietnam in ninety days which earned him the support of the Anti-war party, and the working-class supported him, also. He lost however to Nixon.
John Dean
He testified against Nixon as well as other cabinet members in the Watergate hearings. His testimony helped led to the removal of several White House officials and the resignation of Nixon. Before his testimony he had been a White House lawyer.
Rachel Carson
was an American marine biologist and conservationist whose writings are credited with advancing the global environmental movement.
Gerald Ford
was the first president to be solely elected by a vote from Congress. He entered the office in August of 1974 when Nixon resigned. He pardoned Nixon of all crimes that he may have committed. The Vietnam War ended in 1975, in which Ford evacuated nearly 500,000 Americans and South Vietnamese from Vietnam. He closed the war.
Jimmy Carter
He was Georgia’s governor for four years before he was elected the dark-horse president of 1976, promising to never lie to the people. He was politically successful at first, but was accused of being isolated with Georgians after a while. His greatest foreign policy achievement was when he peacefully resolved Egypt and Israel relations in 1978.
Shah of Iran Pahlavi
became Shah in 1941, when the allies of WWII forced the abdication of his father. Communist and Nationalist movements created unrest and tension during the early years of his reign. The Shah distributed royal lands to poverty-stricken farmers. He is known for both social and economic reform in Iran. With the abundance of oil-drinking machines, Pahlavi became a powerful world leader, and the main military power in the Middle East. Muslims and the Ayatollah forced the Shah and his family into exile in 1979, where he died in Cairo on July 27, 1980.
Leonid Brezhnev
was the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, presiding over the country from 1964 until his death in 1982. His eighteen-year term as General Secretary was one of the lengthiest, second only to that of Joseph Stalin.
Detente
A period of relaxed tension between the communist powers of the Soviet Union and China and the U.S. set up by Richard Nixon that established better relations between these countries to ease the Cold War. During this time the Anti-ballistic Missile treaty as well as the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks were set up to prevent nuclear war
Impoundment
the refusal of a President of the United States to spend money that has been appropriated by the U.S. Congress. The power was available to all presidents up to and including Richard Nixon
Revenue Sharing
Under this policy, Congress gave an annual amount of federal tax revenue to the states and theircities, counties and townships. Revenue sharing was extremely popular with state officials
Executive Privilege
This policy came into effect during the Nixon administration when members of the executive branch were being questioned by authorities. The policy stated that Congress could not question any of the past or present employees about any topic without the president’s approval.
Vietnamization
President Nixon’s policy to withdraw the 540,000 U.S. troops in South Vietnam over an extended period. It would bring and end to the war in 1973.
Nixon Doctrine
During the Vietnam War, the Nixon Doctrine was created. It stated that the United States would honor its existing defense commitments, but in the future other countries would have to fight their own wars without support of American troops.
My Lai Massacre
In 1968 American troops massacred women and children in the Vietnamese village of My Lai; this deepened American people’s disgust for the Vietnam War.
Cambodian Incursion
was a series of military operations conducted in eastern Cambodia during mid-1970 by the United States and South Vietnam during the Vietnam War. These invasions were a result of policy of former President Richard Nixon whose decision it was to invade. A total of 13 major operations were conducted
Kent State Killings
In April of 1970, police fired into an angry crowd of college students at Kent State University. Four students were killed and many others were wounded. The students were protesting against Nixon ordering US troops to seize Cambodia without consulting Congress.
Philadelphia Plan
plan that required government contractors in Philadelphia to hire minority workers.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
an agency of the federal government of the United States charged with protecting human health and the environment, by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress. The EPA was proposed by President Richard Nixon
Watergate Scandal
was a problem in Washington during the presidency of Richard Nixon. The members of an association working to have Nixon re-elected, CREEP, were involved in a burglary, and it was then linked to Nixon. The CREEP group had also gotten lots of money from unidentifiable places. Suspicion set in and Nixon was accused of getting illegal help in being re-elected. Nixon tried to use government to cover-up his involvement. Impeachment proceedings were started but Nixon resigned from his office in August of 1974.
CREEP
Richard Nixon’s committee for re-electing the president. Found to have been engaged in a “dirty tricks” campaign against the democrats in 1972. They raised tens of millions of dollars in campaign funds using unethical means. They were involved in the infamous Watergate cover-up.
Saturday Night Massacre
Richard Nixon’s executive dismissal of independent special prosecutor Archibald Cox, and the resignations of Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus on October 20, 1973 during the Watergate scandal.
War Powers Act
Passed during the Vietnam War, Congress passed this act to restrict Presidential powers dealing with war. It was passed over Nixon’s veto, and required the President to report to Congress within 48 hours after committing troops to a foreign conflict or enlarging units in a foreign country.
Title IX
The law states that No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
first proposed in 1923 to affirm that women and men have equal rights under the law, is still not part of the U.S. Constitution.
Bakke Case
landmark decision of the Supreme Court of the United States on the permissible scope factors in an admissions program, but only for the purpose of improving the learning environment through diversity in accordance with the university’s constitutionally protected First Amendment right to Academic Freedom
Wounded Knee
A massacre where 150 men, women, and children of the Lakota Sioux had been killed and 51 wounded. scuffle over Black Coyote’s rifle escalated and a shot was fired which resulted in the 7th Cavalry opening firing indiscriminately from all sides, killing men, women, and children, as well as some of their own fellow troopers.
SALT II
was a controversial experiment of negotiations between Jimmy Carter and Leonid Brezhnev from 1977 to 1979 between the U.S. and the Soviet Union, which sought to curtail the manufacture of strategic nuclear weapons. The treaty banned new missile programs
Energy Crisis
was caused by our reliance on foreign oil and triggered a nationwide movement that advocated energy conservation and alternate energy sources.
Helsinki Accords
Thirty-five states, including the USA, Canada, and all European states except Albania and Andorra, signed the declaration in an attempt to improve relations between the Communist bloc and the West.
OPEC
“Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries.” -this oil cartel doubled their petroleum charges in 1979, helping American inflation rise well above 13%.
Iranian Hostage Crisis
called Carter’s and America’s bed of nails; captured Americans languished in cruel captivity; American nightly television news cast showed scenes of Iranians burning the American flag; Carter tried to apply economic sanctions and the pressure of world opinion against Iranians. Carter then called for rescue mission; rescue attempt failed; The stalemate with Iran went on through the rest of Carter’s term hurting his bid for reelection.
Thomas Eagleton
McGovern’s running mate in the Democratic nomination. It was shortly discovered that he had undergone psychiatric care, forcing his removal from the ticket, and virtually dooming McGovern’s candidacy. (p. 946)
Phyllis Schlafly
1970s; a new right activist that protested the women’s rights acts and movements as defying tradition and natural gender division of labor; demonstrated conservative backlash against the 60s
Thurgood Marshall
American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. Marshall was a tireless advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.
Anit-Ballistic Missiles
missile that counteracts warheads with ballistic flight trajectory
Occupational Health and Safety Administration
a government agency in the Department of Labor to maintain a safe and healthy work environment
Clean Air Act
1970- law that established national standards for states, strict auto emissions guidelines, and regulations, which set air pollution standardds for private industry
Twenty-fifth amendment
tells what will happen if the president dies, who succeeds him
National Organization for Women
Founded in 1966, called for equal employment opportunity and equal pay for women. also championed the legalization of abortion and passage of an equal rights amendment to the Constitution.
Camp David agreement
Peace between Egypt and Israel
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