stagflation
During the 60’s and 70’s, the U.S. was suffering from 5.3% inflation and 6% unemployment. Refers to the unusual economic situation in which an economy is suffering both from inflation and from stagnation of its industrial growth.
Vietnamization
President Richard Nixons strategy for ending U.S involvement in the vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawl of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces
My Lai Massacre
1968, in which American troops had brutally massacred innocent women and children in the village of My Lai, also led to more opposition to the war.
Bombing of Cambodia
Nixon said there were Vietcong and Vietminh troops in Cambodia, so we bombed the place since it was near South Vietnam, led to student strikes
Kent State
A student riot was shot upon, killing 3-4, in Kentucky. Riot in response to war in Vietnam
26th Amendment
Lowered the voting age from 21 to 18
Pentagon Papers
A 7,000-page top-secret United States government report on the history of the internal planning and policy-making process within the government itself concerning the Vietnam War, led to public distrust, especially of Nixon
Detente
relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China
nixon visits c+r
restoring diplomatic relations ==> detente
SALT 1
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty, a plan to limit nuclear arms and also increased trade and exchange of scientific information.
NOW
National Organization of Women, 1966, Betty Friedan first president, wanted Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforce its legal mandate to end sex discrimination
The Warren Court
Chief Justice Earl Warren's court from 1954-1969; controversial decisions: integration, rights of the accused, prayer in schools, redistricting for voting; "judicial activism" – the court is now legislating?
Griswold v. Connecticut
struck down a state law that banned the use of contraceptives, even by married couples, creating a “right to privacy.”
Miranda v. Arizona
ruled that those who were arrested had to the “right to remain silent.”
The Burger Court– Roe v. Wade
decision legalizing abortion
Philadelphia Plan
this plan forced any construction companies working on federal jobs in philadelphia to create plans for hiring more african american employees
welfare
financial or other assistance to an individual or family from a city, state, or national government
Silent Spring
A book written (Rachel Carson) to voice the concerns of environmentalists. Launched the environmentalist movement by pointing out the effects of civilization development.
EPA
an independent federal agency established to coordinate programs aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment
OSHA
Occupational Safety & Health Administration, A U.S. government agency that protects workers by setting and enforcing health and safety standards
Watergate scandal
A break-in at the Democratic National Committee offices in the Watergate complex in Washington was carried out under the direction of White House employees. Disclosure of the White House involvement in the break-in and subsequent cover-up forced President Nixon to resign in 1974 to avoid impeachment.
CREEP
Richard Nixon’s committee for re-electing the president. Found to have been engaged in a “dirty tricks” campaign against the democrats in 1972. They raised tens of millions of dollars in campaign funds using unethical means. They were involved in the infamous Watergate cover-up.
War Powers Act
Notify Congress within 48 hours of deploying troops; had to gain congress’ approval to stay longer than 90 days; designed to curtail President’s power
Energy Crisis
when Carter entered office inflation soared due to the increases in energy prices by OPEC. In the summer of 1979, instability in the Middle East produced a major fuel shortage in the US, and OPEC announced a major price increase. Facing pressure to act, Carter retreated to Camp David, the presidential retreat in the Maryland Mountains. Ten days later, Carter emerged with a speech including a series of proposals for resolving the energy crisis.
OPEC
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries; international cartel that inflates price of oil by limiting supply; Venezuela, Saudi Arabia and UAE are prominent members
Gerald Ford
president 1974-77, Nixon’s Vice president, only person not voted into the White House, appointed vice president by Nixon: became president after Nixon resigned
Withdrawal from Vietnam
WE LOSE THE GAME
ERA
Equal Rights Amendment, constitutional amendment passed by Congress but never ratified that would have banned discrimination on the basis of gender
Three Mile Island
Pennyslvania 1979 – A mechanical failure and a human error at this power plant in Pennsylvania combined to permit an escape of radiation over a 16 mile radius.
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