William Jennings Bryan
Democrat nominee of 1896. He was the first politician of his generation to lead a major party as a champion of the poor. He was also nominated by the People’s Party (populists). famous quote- “..you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold…”
soft/ cheap money
Supported by the democrats, populists- farmers and debtors. This policy supported a raise in inflation by circulating more money that is backed by silver. It made it easier to repay debts and loans. they were against tariffs
hard/ sound money
Supported by the wealthy business men (Republicans). It would decrease the amount of money in circulation and would be backed entirely by gold which was much harder to aquire than silver. favored high tariffs
Gilded Age
The time of economic growth, the second industrial revolution, urbanization, immigration, and political/economic corruption. it included the era of forgotten presidents (hayes, garfield, arthur, and harrison) Congress and Business were more important and influential than the presidency during this time. it was the most highly competetive political time in US history.
spoils system
the giving away of gov. offices for votes, kickbacks, and party service. it results in great corruption. reformers targeted it.
pork-barrel bills
Bills which would benefit a legislator’s local constituency
populism
the political belief that compares the people (Farmers, workers, common people) with the elite (bankers, business owners, wealthy). it urgers social, economic, and political change. it emerged in the early 1890’s through the Farmer’s Alliance. many southerners didn’t support it because of racial reasons (it included poor black farmers). many of their ideas became law undr the progressives
“Ohio Idea”
the proposal to redeem American Civil War bonds in paper money instead of gold.
Tweed Ring
political machine led by Boss Tweed in Tammany Hall in NYC.
Grand Army of the Republic
Republican support. a politically influential fraternal organization of several hundred thousand union veterans of the Civil War. the Union veterans wanted the comfort of other veterans. influenced elections.
Stalwart
a Republican faction… led by Roscoe Conkling (senator)- favored the Spoils System
Half-Breed
Republican faction- led by James G Blaine (congressman)- favored civil service (spoils system) reform.
Mugwumps
represented in thought by Thomas Nast (political cartoonist)- favored reconstruction policies to help African Americans, continued liberal Republican ideas with anti-corruption. made up mostly of young liberal reformers.
Chinese Exclusion Act
Chinese immigration was not considered a part of new immigration. After the railroad was completed, Chinese angered white workers of California because they took jobs. Employers used them against unions. This act ended Chinese immigration.
“Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion”
a New York Republican clergyman’s insult of the Democrat party. it was an insult to NY’s Irish community.
Billion-Dollar Congress
Thomas B Reed (Republican– “Czar Reed”) was the most powerful House Speaker in the history of Congress. He headed this. It created expensive government programs; they were trying to offset surplus created by high tariffs by spending money.
People’s Party (Populists)
the political belief that compares the people (Farmers, workers, common people) with the elite (bankers, business owners, wealthy). it urgers social, economic, and political change. it emerged in the early 1890’s through the Farmer’s Alliance. many southerners didn’t support it because of racial reasons (it included poor black farmers). many of their ideas became law undr the progressives
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
passed in 1890. it was a system of bimetallism. the western pro-silver mining states agreed to support a protective tariff in return for the eastern support of this bill. In it, the treasure would double the amount of silver purchased under the Bland- Allison Act. Westerners-miners- and Farmers (who wanted inflation) wanted this
Farmer’s Alliance
formed in 1877 in the South and in 1880 in the widwest. they voiced their discontent. they created and supported the subtreasury plan. they would store their harvest in federal warehouses for periods of low rices and obtain federal loans. the populist party emerged from this.
Cornelius Vanderbuilt
1794-1877: replaced iron rail tracks with steel; amassed a fortune of 100 million dollars.
Alexander Graham Bell
1876- telephone network created nation-wide within a few years. created jobs for women as telephone operators.
Thomas Edison
he had a research laboratory-Menlo Park- responsible for the invention of the electric light, phonograph, mimeograph, dictaphone, moving pictures. most known for electricity, one of the cornerstones of the industrial revolution
Andrew Carnegie
owned Carnegie Steel. He disliked monopolistic trusts. he eventually sold his steel company for over 400 million dollars. he spent the rest of his life as a philanthropist- he built lots of public libraries. started Carnegie Mellon University
John D Rockefeller
business man who owned Standard Oil Company, a monopolistic trust that used horizontal intergration to buy out and eliminate competition.
J. Pierpont Morgan
a banker who financed the reorganization of railroads, insurance companies, and banks. He bought out Carnegie and in 1901 he started the United States Steel Corporation.
Samuel Gompers
he was fairly conservative. he led the American Federation of Labor (AFL). a foe of socialism. fought for better working conditions, wages, and hours.
land grant
land given by a government (Morill Land Act gave states land for education purposes)
pool
defensive alliance cooperations form to protect their profits
rebate
give a reduction in the price during a sale
vertical integration
controlling every aspect of the production process. demonstrated by Andrew Carnegie. It’s goal was to improve effiency by making supplies more reliable, controlling quality of the product at all stages, and eliminate middlemen fees.
horizontal integration
consolidating with competitors to monopolize a given market. Shown by Rockefeller. He controlled his market through the Standard Oil Company. it bought out its competition
trust
a business that forms with the intent to monopolize business, to restrain trade, or fix prices. the term eventually came to mean monopolies
interlocking directorate
situation occurring when the majority of members of the boards of directors of competing corporations are the same; in effect, having one group of people manage both companies
capital goods
Buildings, machines, technology, and tools needed to produce goods and services.
trust-busting
government activities seeking to dissolve corporate trusts and monopolies (especially under the United States antitrust laws)
company town
town built for specific company ex: Pullman company town—had own businesses and were very organized
Social Darwinism
advocated by Herbert Spencer. theory of natural selection applied to human competition. established socialogy as a respected discipline in the US. millionaires were seen as a product of natural selection.
“survival of the fittest”
it cast serious doubt on the literal interpretation of the Bible, especially creationism. only the strongest, best, most elite species would survive.
scabs
the workers employers used to replace unskilled workers that were on strike
lockout
When management closes the doors to the place of work and keeps the workers from entering until an agreement is reached
yellow dog contract
employees had to sign these (also called “iron clad” oaths) that would not allow them to join a union. they were in fear of being blacklisted.
blacklist
if someone’s name was blacklisted, they would not be able to find work because no one would hire them.
anarchists
people who oppose all forms of organized government
socialism
A system of government where they own and control the means of production to benefit the people.
closed shop
all workers in a unionized industry had to belong to the union. Unions provided money to ride out strikes.
Grange
1867- The National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry provided farmers with social and educational activities. It had about 800,000 members in 1875 (mostly Midwest and South).They established cooperatives (co-ops): business organization owned and operated by a group of indiviudals for their benefit. they sought to end monopolistic railroad practices. Grangers regulated railroad rates and storage fees charged by railroads and operators of warehouses and grain elevators.
Standard Oil Company
owned and controlled by John d Rockefeller. It was a trust (monopoly) that demonstrated horizontal integration. it controlled and bought out its competition.
Gospel of Wealth
This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
passed in 1890. It sought to regulate monoplies.
American Tobacco Company
controlled nine-tenths of the nations cigarette production in 1890 and about three-fourths of all tobacco production in 1904; broken up in 1911 for violating the Sherman Anti-Trust Act
New South
south after the Civil War; identified southern promoters’ belief in the technologically advanced industrial South
Interstate Commerce Act
passed in 1887. it was the first large scale attempt by the federal government to regulate business in the interest of society. it was enforced by the ICC; prohibited rebates and pools, and also required railroads to publish their rates. forbid unfair discrimination against shippers. it did not effectively regulate the railroads, but was precendent for future regulatory commissions.
Knights of Labor
1869- led by Terence Powderly. He was not a radical. Sought to include all workers including nonskilled, blacks, and women. “One Big Union.” they campaigned for enconomic and social reform. They wanted an end to child labor and codes for health and safety. They especially fought for an 8 hour work day.
Haymarket Square
May 4, 1886: Chicago. alleged German anarchists threw a bomb that killed and injured many people during a protest. It resulted in the first full red scare.
AFL
American Federation of Labor- 1886. Was under the leadership of Samuel Gompers. It wanted labor to have a fair share- better wages, hours, and working conditions.
Booker T Washington
head of the black normal and industrial school at Tuskegee, AL in 1881. he advocated a policy of accomodation (accepted segregation in return for the right to develop economic and educational resources of the black community). Atlanta Compromise of 1895. secretely labored against Jim Crow laws
WEB Du Bois
opposed Washington and demanded immediate social/economic equality for blacks. Niagara Movement was against Booker T Washington’s Atlanta Compromise. laid the foundation for the NAACP. demanded the “talented tenth” of the black community to be given full and immediate access to the mainstream of american life.
George Washington Carver
chemist and educator at Tuskegee that promoted the use of alternative crops to help African American farmers (peanuts)
William Randolph Hearst
like Pulitzer he was extremely sensationalistic and built up a powerful chain of newspapers.
Joseph Pulitzer
Yellow Journalism attributed to his newspapers. Extremely sensationalistic
Mark Twain
1835-1910. He wrote the Adventures of Tom Sawyer and the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. He captures frontier realism and humor in the authentic American dialect. He changed American literature.
Emily Dickinson
one of America’s most gifted lyric poets; she was a recluse and lived alone
William F Cody
Idiolized the “cowboy” life during the migration to the west, offered people in East a look into what was occurring on the other side of the country; “Buffalo Bill”
settlement house
opened by women reformers such as Jane Addams (Hull House) – helped immigrants cope with American city life by teaching them English, nutrition, child care, and social skills.
New Immigration
between 1800 and 1920. Most came from Eastern and Southern Europe (Italians, Jews, Bulgarian/Serbian/Montenegrin, Czech). Most came in through Ellis Island
social gospel
Believed Christians should improve life on earth rather than waiting for the afterlife. sought to improve problems from alcoholism and unemployment. it attempted to mediate between managers and unions and did much to begin the Progressive reform at the turn of the century
fundamentalism
seeing the Scripture as the inspired and unfallible word of God. It condemned Darwinism
nativism
formed groups like the Order of the Star Spangled Banner and the Know-Nothing Party. They protested Irish and German (Catholic) immigration.
evolution
Darwin’s theory: change in a kind of organism over time; process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms
natural selection
Darwin’s theory of a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment
normal schools
they were teacher training schools. they expanded after the Civil War
pragmatism
book written by William James in 1907. It described America’s greatest contribution to the history of philosophy. Truth was to be tested, above all, by the practical consequences of an idea, by action rather than theories.
land-grant colleges
colleges that came from the Morrill Act of 1862. it granted public lands to states in order to support education. these colleges became state universities and supplied military training.
yellow journalism
Joseph Pulitzer started this type of sensationalism (public interested in sex, scandal, and human interest stories) journalism
dime novels
cheaply bound and widely circulated novels that became popular after the Civil War depicting such scenarios from the “Wild West” and other American tales.
literary realism
literature reflecting real life, rather, than imaginary or idealistic life.
new morality
came forth turning people away from traditional values; glorified weath and personal freedom.
Hull House
the settlement house of Chicago started by Jane Addams (one of the first college-educated women). It helped immigrants cope with American city life by teaching them English, nutrition, child care, and social skills. it became a model for other settlement houses. Won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931
Tuskegee Institute
black normal and industrial school in Alabama headed by Booker T Washington. taught useful trades as a means toward self-respect and economic equality rather than classical education
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
(NAACP) 1910: adopted many of the goals of the Niagara movement. DuBois was the editor of their journal Crisis. their goal was to attain equal rights for blacks through lawsuits.
Morrill Act
1862– granted public lands to states in order to support education. These colleges were called land-grant colleges; they became state universities and supplied military training.
Women’s Christian Temperance Union
WCTU organized in 1874; led by Francis Willard. Saw alcoholism as a result of poverty rather than the cause. It put tons of pressure on abolishing alcohol (somewhat successful). It was the most important women’s suffrage group in the 19th century.
American Red Cross
established by Clara Barton in 1881. Municipal Housekeeping: quality of life in poor neighborhoods. It encouraged street cleaning, sanitation, pure milk and water, etc
Anti-Saloon League
1893- temperance movement. had more political connections to get legislation passed
World’s Columbian Exposition
In honor of the 400th anniversary of Columbus’ first voyage, Daniel Burnham designed buildings in Chicago that greatly increased America’s worldwide renown for art
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