(Woodrow) Wilson
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women’s suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
New Freedom
Woodrow Wilson’s domestic policy that promoted antitrust modification, tariff revision, and reform in banking and currency matters.
Bull Moose Party
Nickname for the new Progressive Party, which was formed to support Roosevelt in the election of 1912
New Nationalism
Roosevelt’s progressive political policy that favored heavy government intervention in order to assure social justice
(Herbert) Croly
Political theorist that argued that the government should use its regulatory and taxation powers to promote the welfare of its citizens.
Election of 1912
Presidential campaign involving Taft, T. Roosevelt, and Woodrow Wilson. Taft and Roosevelt split the Republican vote, enabling Wilson to win
Triple Wall of Privilege
The banks, trusts, and tariffs that Wilson pledged to topple were collectively known as this
Underwood Tariff
Pushed through Congress by Woodrow Wilson, this 1913 tariff reduced average tariff duties by almost 15% and established a graduated income tax
16th Amendment
Amendment that legalized the income tax
Pujo Committee
A committee formed to decide the fate of the Philippine Islands after the Spanish-American War.
Federal Reserve Act (1913)
This act created a central banking system, consisting of twelve regional banks governed by the Federal Reserve Board. It was an attempt to provide the United States with a sound yet flexible currency. The Board it created still plays a vital role in the American economy today.
Federal Trade Commission (1914)
Established to preserve competition by preventing unfair business practices and investigate complaints against companies.
Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914)
Lengthened Sherman Anti-Trust Act’s list of practices. Exempted labor unions from being called trusts, legalized strikes and peaceful picketing by labor union members.
Federal Farm Loan Act (1916)
Congressional measure making credit available to farmers at low rates of interest
Jones Act (1916)
The act that granted the Phillipines territorial status and promised independence as soon as stable government was achieved
From 1915 to 1934, the U.S occupied this country in an attempt to protect U.S interests there.
Moral Diplomacy
President Wilson’s policy of condemning imperialism, spreading democracy, and promoting peace internationally.
(Victoriano) Huerta
He was a Mexican military officer and President of Mexico who was also leader of the violent revolution that took place in 1913.
Pancho Villa
Mexican revolutionary who killed many Americans in Mexico. The United States sent John J Pershing to capture him but never did.
ABC Powers
The South American countries of Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, which attempted to mediate a dispute between Mexico and the United States in 1914.
General John (Black Jack) Pershing
Wilson ordered him and an expeditionary force of about 15,000 soldiers into Mexico to capture Francisco “Pancho” Villa dead or alive
World War I
Also known as the “Great War”, this war broke out in Europe over the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, this was the first war in which “total war” was waged, and sucked the reluctant United States into it in 1917.
Central Powers
World War I alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire
Allied Powers
World War I alliance that included Britain, France, Russia, and later the United States and Italy. They opposed the Central Powers.
(American) Neutrality
This policy was pursued early in World War I. Under it, the American economy flourished and grew because of its trade with belligerents. The United States refused to take sides in the Great War.
German submarines used in World War I; they sank many Allied ships around the British Isles. They were responsible for the sinking of the HMS Lusitania and the Sussex.
HMS Lusitania
This British liner was sunk in 1915, by German U-Boats, causing Wilson to issue a stern warning to the Germans, telling them not to attack unarmed vessels “without warning”.
Sussex Pledge (1916)
A torpedo from a German submarine hit a french passenger liner, called the Sussex in march 1916. Wilson demanded the Germans refrain from attacking passenger ships. In this statement, Germany said they would temporarily stop these attacks but might have to resume in the future if the British continued to blockade German ports.
Election of 1916
In this election, main concern of voters was whether or not the United States would become involved in World War I. Supreme Court Justice Charles E. Hughes and President Woodrow Wilson ran against each other. Wilson won by an extremely shallow margin, running the campaign slogan “He Kept Us Out Of War”
“He Kept Us Out Of War”
Campaign slogan in 1916 for Woodrow Wilson; ironically, he contradicted it two weeks after taking office again.

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