(Franklin Delano) Roosevelt (FDR)
Democratic candidate who won the 1932 election by a landslide. He refused to uphold any of Hoover’s policies with the intent on enacting his own. He pledged a present a “New Deal” (its specific meaning ambiguous at the time to the American people) to the American public.
FULL NAME REQUIRED FDR’s Wife and New Deal supporter. Was a great supporter of civil rights and opposed the Jim Crow laws. She also worked for birth control and better conditions for working women
Election of 1932
In this election, a fresh and energetic Franklin Delano Roosevelt ran against the hapless Hoover. FDR pushed his ambiguous “new deal”, and the public ate it up. The election ended in a landslide for FDR.
100 Days (Congress)
F.Roosevelt’s democratic congress who brought out legislation. Congress gave F.Roosevelt blank check power, passed many progressive goals, supported public reliability on banks during depression. FDR’s “I’m here!” statement.
Relief, Recovery, Reform
Three components of the New Deal. The first “R” was the effort to help the one-third of the population that was hardest hit by the depression, & included social security and unemployment insurance. The second “R” was the effort in numerous programs to restore the economy to normal health, achieved by 1937. Finally, the third “R” let government intervention stabilize the economy by balancing the interests of farmers, business and labor. There was no major anti-trust program.
Emergency Bank Relief Act (1933)
Passed on March 9, 1933, this act allowed a plan that would close down insolvent banks and reorganize and reopen those banks strong enough to survive.It was a temporary response to a major problem. The 1933 Banking Act passed later that year presented elements of longer-term response, including formation of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC).
The informal radio conversations Roosevelt had with the people to keep spirits up. It was a means of communicating with the people on how he would take on the depression.
Glass-Steagall Act (1933)
This act forbade commercial banks from engaging in excessive speculation, added $1 billion in gold to economy and established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC).
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
This entity provided insurance to personal banking accounts up to $5,000. These assured people that their money was safe and secure. This agency still functions today.
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
1933. This unemployment relief act hired young men for reforestation programs, firefighting. flood control, spawn drainage, etc;
Federal Emergency Relief Act (1933)
One of the New Deal’s most comprehensive measures, this 1933 act appropriated $500 million to support state and local treasuries that had run dry
First Agricultural Adjustment Act (1933)
This act restricted agricultural production in the New Deal era by paying farmers subsidies not to plant part of their land and to kill off excess livestock. Its purpose was to reduce crop surplus so as to effectively raise the value of crops.
Civil Works Administration (1933)
New Deal program that was only open for two years. It put people to work with building roads and bridges, construction, etc.
Catholic priest who used his popular radio program to criticize the New Deal; he grew increasingly anti-Roosevelt and anti-Semitic until the Catholic Church pulled him off the air.
FULL NAME REQUIRED Louisianna Senator who opposed FDR’s New Deal and came up with a “Share the Wealth” plan, which planned to give $5000 to all families. He was later assassinated.
Dr. Francis Townsend
FULL NAME REQUIRED This man was a critic of the new deal. He developed the Townsend Plan as a way for the elderly to gain a monthly pension of $200 that must be spent within 30 days.
Works Progress Administration (1935)
New Deal program that provided relief to the unemployed in fields such as theater, literature, entertainment, and art. One of the largest “alphabet” agencies.
U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945, and the first woman ever appointed to the cabinet. She took much flak from her contemporaries.
Mary McLeod Bethune
FULL NAME REQUIRED This woman was a leader in the struggle for racial and gender equality. She founded a school for black students that eventually became Bethune-Cookman University. She also served as an adviser to President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
National Industrial Recovery Act (1933)
This act authorized the President of the United States to regulate industry and permit cartels and monopolies in an attempt to stimulate economic recovery, and established a national public works program.
National Recovery Administration (1933)
Directed by Hugh John, this agency set up a system of codes of business practice, including giving fair wages and work hours. Businesses and labor unions who followed such codes could advertise as such (symbol: Blue Eagle) and thus gain more membership. Was limited in success.
Schechter v. U.S. (1935)
Declared the National Recovery Administration (part of FDR’s New Deal) unconstitutional on the basis that the NRA gave the executive branch regulatory powers that belonged exclusively to Congress.
Public Works Administration (1933)
Provided funding for numerous projects that created many jobs while improving the nation’s infrastructure.
21st Amendment (1933)
This repealed prohibition.
Second Agricultural Adjustment Act (1938)
Provided for price support to be mandatory on corn, cotton, and wheat, regulated supply and market demand
A horrible natural disaster in which Midwestern dust from millions of acres of dry, arid land (which in-part got that way from the tilling of the area) was blown up into the air and carried as far as Boston. Caused much suffering.
Unflattering name given to Oklahomans and others from the rural Midwest, especially those who left the Dust Bowl looking for better lives during the 1930s
The Grapes of Wrath
John Steinbeck’s novel about a struggling farm family during the Great Depression. Gave a face to the violence and exploitation that migrant farm workers faced in America. Featured information about the Dust Bowl.
Indian Reorganization Act (1934)
The Native American “New Deal”; encouraged tribes to preserve their culture and tradition. Essentially repealed the Dawes Act.
Securities and Exchange Commission (1934)
Congressional commission created in 1934 to administer the Securites Act requiring full financial disclosure by companies wishing to sell stock, and to prevent the unfair manipulation of stock exchanges
Tennessee Valley Authority (1933)
It built a hydroelectric network that supplied cheap power while also developing a flood-control system, recreational facilities, and soil conservation program. First federal business to compete with private enterprises.
Federal Housing Administration (1934)
Agency that stimulated the housing industry by granting loans to home owners.
Social Security Act (1935)
The greatest victory for New Dealers; created pension and insurance for the old-aged, the blind, the physically handicapped, delinquent children, and other dependents by taxing employees and employers
(John L.) Lewis
United Mine Workers of America leader who organized the coal miners strike
Wagner Act (1935)
Created National Labor Relations board for administrative purposes & reasserted rights to unionize & bargain through reps.
National Labor Relations Board
An independent agency of the United States government charged with mediating disputes between management and labor unions.
Fair Labor Standards Act (1938)
This act federally established minimum wage and overtime pay.
Congress of Industrial Organizations
Union organization of unskilled workers; broke away from the American Federation of Labor in 1935 and rejoined it in 1955.
20th Amendment (1933)
The major effect of this was to severely cut down the “lame duck” period from the presidency.
Court Packing Plan (1937)
Franklin Roosevelt’s politically motivated and ill-fated scheme to add a new justice to the Supreme Court for every member over seventy who would not retire. His objective was to overcome the Court’s objections to New Deal reforms.
(John Maynard) Keynes
British economist who argued that for a nation to recovery fully from a depression, the govt had to spend money to encourage investment and consumption.
Hatch Act (1939)
Limits how involved federal government employees can become in elections. This prevented political parties from forcing federal workers to take part in election campaigns.
First New Deal (1933-35)
The first part of Roosevelt’s economic policy, this one was a bit more fiscally conservative and more experimental than its successor.
Second New Deal (1935-38)
The second part of Roosevelt’s economic policy, this took more drastic action and was more pro-labor/anti-business.