I heard some narratives about disposable chopsticks being unsafe and toxicant. And I wanted to happen out myself whether it was true or non. I found out that certain types of disposable chopsticks have greater hazards to be acidic and non-disposable chopsticks are much safer. My consequences were of import because I could assist raise the consciousness of the hazard of utilizing disposable chopsticks. This consciousness non merely saves us from malignant neoplastic disease or harm to organic structure, but besides helps do the universe a greener topographic point to populate.

Background Research

This experiment is about “ Are disposable chopsticks safe to utilize? ” My hypothesis is that some disposable chopsticks may non be processed suitably to be safe to utilize. I choose this undertaking because many eating houses use disposable chopsticks and to prove whether disposable chopsticks are safe or non-disposable chopsticks are safe. I truly want to turn out if y hypothesis is right about assorted of chopsticks. For the safety of many people in the universe who use disposable chopsticks, it might be better to utilize non-disposable chopsticks or the other manner around depending on the consequences.

The normal pH degree H2O is 6.5 to 8.5 and below 6.5 the H2O is acidic, soft, and corrosive. The pH H2O degree 8.5 and above is difficult, but it can do aesthetic jobs. Chopsticks can be made of bamboo, wood, plastic, and unstained steel. Sulfur dioxide and H peroxide are used to decolor the wooden disposable chopsticks.

Many people use disposable chopsticks all over the universe for tiffin, dinner, and sometimes breakfast. I hope my experiment will assist raise the consciousness of utilizing the right sort of the chopsticks and better the safety for many. Non-disposable chopsticks may be safer than disposable chopsticks, but it will depend on research and trial informations to turn out. I do n’t desire to acquire ill or acquire illness by utilizing disposable chopsticks. So there is an importance of this experiment.

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Experiment Detailss

Experiment Question

What is the consequence of production procedures on disposable chopsticks?

How does the improperly processed chopsticks affect our safety?

What types of chopsticks are better to utilize?

Experiment Hypothesis

Are disposable chopsticks safe to utilize?

My hypothesis is that some disposable chopsticks may non be processed suitably to be safe to utilize. I ‘ve heard that disposable chopsticks are put into bleach and this was brought to my concern.

Experiment Variables

Independent Variable

The different types of chopsticks, different temperatures of H2O ( hot and cold ) and different soaking continuances will be altering.

Dependent Variable

I am mensurating the pH degree of the H2O after soaking the chopsticks for certain continuance for clip.

Controlled Variables

The chopsticks will remain in the same spectacless and the sum of H2O will remain the same every bit good.

Materials and Procedures

Materials Used

pH Meter

Disposable chopsticks- 4 sorts

Stainless steel chopsticks

Plastic chopsticks

Hot H2O boiler

Tap H2O

Bottle imbibing H2O

Spectacless

Timer

Computer

Camera

Score tape

Procedures

Measure 1: First, qualify the pH degree of the tap H2O and bottle imbibing H2O. Record the readings on paper.

STEP2: Following, set hot H2O into spectacless. Then soak four sorts of disposable chopsticks and two sorts of non-disposable chopsticks ( unstained steel and plastic ) into each designated cups for 30 proceedingss.

Measure 3: Use the pH metre to mensurate the pH degree of each designated H2O in the spectacless. If below pH6.5, it could be acidic, soft and caustic.

Measure 4: Then reiterate the above stairss with extra designated period of times.

Measure 5: Repeat the same processs by utilizing cold H2O in the spectacless and record the consequences.

Measure 6: In the terminal, we will compare the consequences of each design of experiments to happen out whether the pH degree for disposable chopsticks are different from the non-disposable chopsticks with assorted soaking times and H2O temperature. We can so reason if it is safe to utilize disposable chopsticks or non. Besides this will corroborate if my hypothesis was right.

Challenges and Technical Issues

The challenges I had during my experiment are as follows.

1. The electrode tip of the pH metre demand to be in the H2O about 3 cm deep. Dunking excessively deep or excessively shallow will impact the readings slightly. However, with some patterns and acquiring familiar with the deepness of the tip, it is non hard to set.

2. The pH metre will take some clip to stabilise the reading. Need to do certain the reading does non fluctuate for a few seconds. Then take the reading. The tip is to pattern several measurings and take readings patiently.

Experiment Consequences

A. Baseline Comparison of Different Waters:

1. House tap H2O is on the difficult side, pH degree 8.30.

2. The difference of pH degree between place pat H2O and imbibing H2O is 1.21.

3. My experiment is utilizing place pat H2O. So if utilizing nominal pH degree H2O or lower pH flat H2O, the resulted pH degrees would be proportionately lower.

Water Type

( pH )

Home Tap Water

8.30

Bottled Drinking Water

7.09

Difference

-1.21

B. Tested with Hot Water:

1. This experiment is more closely imitating the existent use of the chopsticks ( hot repasts & A ; hot soup ) .

2. Both unstained steel and plastic chopsticks are really stable when soaked in hot H2O for an hr. So they are safe to utilize.

3. Plastic chopsticks are executing the best, with least alterations in pH degree.

4. All four sorts of the disposable chopsticks had pH degrees lower by 1.53 to 2.15. Bamboo type

3 ( PB ) ) of the chopsticks is the worst, pH degree lower by 2.15. So these chopsticks could present safety hazards by utilizing them with hot meals/ soup.

5. If the baseline H2O were non pH 8.30, alternatively of pH 7.09, so the pH degrees of all four sorts of the chopsticks would be lowered to the even more unsafe acidic degrees. So disposable chopsticks are comparatively insecure to utilize.

6. Bamboo 3 ( PB ) had the worst xanthous stain of H2O. Bamboo 1 ( FL ) and Bamoo 2 ( GL ) besides had some xanthous stain.

MATERIAL TYPE

Baseline

30 Min.

Changes from

1 Hour

Changes from

( pH )

( pH )

Baseline ( pH )

( pH )

Baseline ( pH )

Stainless Steel

8.30

8.95

0.65

8.89

0.59

Plastic

8.30

8.92

0.62

8.64

0.34

Bamboo 1 ( FL )

8.30

6.45

-1.85

6.77

-1.53

Bamboo 2 ( GL )

8.30

6.78

-1.52

6.47

-1.83

Wood

8.30

7.35

-0.95

6.77

-1.53

Bamboo 3 ( PB )

8.30

6.09

-2.21

6.15

-2.15

C. Tested with Cold Water:

1. Both fictile and unstained steel chopsticks were really stable within one hr, while all other 4 sorts of disposable chopsticks were get downing to turn acidic in an hr.

2. When chopsticks were soaked in H2O longer than 1 hours, they all turned more acidic, with disposable chopsticks worse.

3. Soaking in H2O longer than 1 twenty-four hours, both 2 yearss and 4 yearss, the pH degrees for most of the chopsticks were stabilized. Most of the alterations happened within the first twenty-four hours.

4. Bamboo 3 ( PB ) had the worst xanthous stain of H2O. Bamboo 1 ( FL ) and Bamboo 2 ( GL ) besides had some xanthous stain.

MATERIAL TYPE

Baseline

30 Min.

Changes from

1 Hour

Changes from

( pH )

( pH )

Baseline ( pH )

( pH )

Baseline ( pH )

Stainless Steel

8.30

8.25

-0.05

8.25

-0.05

Plastic

8.30

8.26

-0.04

8.22

-0.08

Bamboo 1 ( FL )

8.30

7.59

-0.71

7.61

-0.69

Bamboo 2 ( GL )

8.30

7.83

-0.47

7.69

-0.61

Wood

8.30

7.90

-0.40

7.70

-0.60

Bamboo 3 ( PB )

8.30

7.46

-0.84

7.26

-1.04

1 Day

Changes from

2 Dayss

Changes from

4 Dayss

Changes from

( pH )

Baseline ( pH )

( pH )

Baseline ( pH )

( pH )

Baseline ( pH )

7.02

-1.28

6.44

-1.86

7.26

-1.04

7.22

-1.08

7.16

-1.14

7.10

-1.20

6.05

-2.25

6.11

-2.19

6.77

-1.53

6.91

-1.39

6.33

-1.97

6.17

-2.13

6.83

-1.47

6.77

-1.53

6.47

-1.83

6.13

-2.17

6.22

-2.08

6.18

-2.12

Data Analysis and Discussion

It was predicted and confirmed that the disposable chopsticks would hold lower pH degrees, which could be acidic, than the plastic and chromium steel steel chopsticks after soaking in both hot and tap Waterss. One possible account for low pH readings is that some disposable chopsticks used sulfur dioxide and hydro-peroxide to decolor the chopsticks without appropriate cleansing during the production processes.

In the hot H2O experiment, the consequences were more outstanding, after 30 proceedingss to an hr we saw dramatic pH degree alterations on the disposable chopsticks. At the same clip, both plastic and chromium steel steel chopsticks, the pH degrees were really stable after one hr. The two worst Ph degree alterations were the 3rd bamboo disposable chopsticks ( -2.21 pH degree, with the plastic bag wrapping ) and the first bamboo disposable chopsticks ( -1.85 pH degree, with the Fu-Lu characters ) . The worst pH degree decrease occurred at 30 proceedingss in hot H2O, non 1 hr.

For cold H2O experiment, the pH degree alterations were at a slower rate than the hot H2O experiment as expected. Still the worst pH degree alterations with cold H2O are still the 3rd bamboo chopsticks ( -0.84 pH at 30 proceedingss & A ; -2.17 pH at 1 twenty-four hours ) and the first bamboo disposable chopsticks ( -0.71 pH & A ; -2.25 pH at 1 twenty-four hours ) . The pH degree alterations were stabilized after 1 twenty-four hours. Plastic and unstained steel chopsticks were besides more stable on pH readings.

The worst sort of the disposable bamboo chopsticks- type 3 ( PB ) besides showed the worst sort of stain ( xanthous ) in both hot and cold H2O experiment. I farther noticed both bamboo type 3 ( PB ) and bamboo type 1 ( FL ) , the worst two disposable chopsticks have less denseness in the construction. This could corroborate that if they are non cleaned good in the production processes, they could incorporate most unwanted chemicals ( bad material ) and easier to fade out into hot ( particularly ) and cold Waterss.

My original inquiry was that “ Are disposable chopsticks safe to utilize? ” My hypothesis was taken in the right way because after calculating out both the observations of the hot and cold H2O experiments everything started to suit rather good. This is back uping my hypothesis that disposable chopsticks are non as safe. Furthermore, if the baseline H2O were non pH 8.30 ( tap H2O ) , alternatively of pH 7.09 ( imbibing H2O, difference of Ph1.21 ) , so the pH degrees of all four sorts of the disposable chopsticks after soaking in hot H2O would be even lower and in the more unsafe acidic degrees. I will surely urge utilizing either the plastic chopsticks or unstained steel chopsticks for hot repasts and hot soups and avoiding utilizing disposable chopsticks.

Decision

From my hot and cold Waterss experiment with both reclaimable and disposable chopsticks, I can reason that it ‘s better to utilize the plastic or chromium steel steel chopsticks ( reclaimable ) . The disposable chopsticks are comparatively insecure to utilize. We should avoid utilizing both Type 3 ( PB ) and Type 1 ( FL ) bamboo chopsticks. Besides forbearing from utilizing the disposable chopsticks will besides salvage the bamboos, trees, forest and Earth. It ‘s non merely healthy, but besides environmental friendly.

Recommendations

This undertaking was done with limited clip and resources. The sample size of chopsticks and clip interval may non be large plenty, the standardization of the pH metre was non done with the sample of pH 7.01 buffer ( deficiency of trial sample sheet ) and use place pat H2O ( pH 8.30 ) . I will urge to future project leader to utilize bigger samples size of chopsticks, take more readings in shorter clip interval, calibrate the pH metre with the right sample buffer and usage bottle imbibing H2O ( pH 7.09, in the center of the safe imbibing H2O pH scope ) to execute the experiment.

Work Cited

“ PH Levels. ” Freedrinkingwater.com. 29 Sept. 2010 & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //freedrinkingwater.com/water-education/quality-water-ph.htm & gt ; .

“ Chilling Disposable chopsticks. ” eats-time.blogspot.com. 29 Sept. 2010 & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //eats-time.blogspot.com/2009/04/scary-disposable-chopstick.html & gt ; .

Experiment Notes:

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