Introduction: Aristotle wrote about many topics that can be grouped into five general divisions: logic. physical plants. psychological plant. natural history plants. and philosophical plants. One of the small known physical plants concerned weather forecasting. Aristotle’s positions on weather forecasting are intriguing. but many of the positions were non accurate. This paper compares merely a few of his positions to existent meteoric facts. I. Biography A. Birth and growing B. Influence on Hagiographas II. Basis of Aristotle’s weather forecasting A. Elementss and theory B. Science and facts III. Water vapour and precipitation A. Aristotle’s position B. Science and fact.
IV. Winds A. Aristotle’s position B. Science and fact Decision: Aristotle explained the assorted meteoric phenomenon in simplistic footings. The accounts fit his theory of how affair and form were interrelated. Aristotle’s thoughts on H2O vapour and precipitation were slightly accurate. sing that there were no tools to mensurate the ambiance in his clip. His positions on air current. nevertheless. were non accurate at all. He wrote extensively on air currents. but ne’er to the full comprehended how air current occurred. September 5. 2000 Aristotle on Meteorology Aristotle was born in 384 BC. at Stagirus. a Grecian settlement on the Aegean Sea near Macedonia.
In 367 BC. Aristotle entered the Academy at Athens and studied under Plato. go toing his talks for a period of 20 old ages. In the ulterior old ages of his association with Plato and the Academy. he began to talk on his ain history. particularly on the topic of rhetoric. When Plato died in 347. Aristotle and another of Plato’s pupils. Xenocrates. left Athens for Assus. and set up an academy ( Encyclopedia 2 ) . In 342. Aristotle returned to Macedonia and became the coach to a really immature Alexander the Great. He did this for the following five to seven old ages.
Both Philip and Alexander appear to hold paid Aristotle high award. There are narratives that indicate the Macedonian tribunal supplied Aristotle with financess for learning. and with slaves to roll up specimens for his surveies in natural scientific discipline ( Encyclopedia 4 ) . Aristotle returned to Athens when Alexander the Great began his conquerings. He found the Platonic school booming under Xenocrates. and Platonism the dominant doctrine of Athens ( Encyclopedia 5 ) . Aristotle therefore set up his ain school at a topographic point called the Lyceum. When learning at the Lyceum. Aristotle had a wont of walking approximately as he discoursed.
It was because of this that his followings became known in ulterior old ages as the peripatetics. significance. “to walk about” ( Shakian 126 ) . For the following 13 old ages. he devoted his energies to his instruction and composing his philosophical treatises. His establishment integrated extended equipment. including maps and the largest library aggregation in Europe. He is said to hold given two sorts of talks: the more elaborate treatments in the forenoon for an interior circle of advanced pupils. and the popular discourses in the eventide for the general organic structure of lovers of cognition.
At the sudden decease of Alexander in 323 BC. the pro-Macedonian authorities in Athens was overthrown. and a general reaction occurred against anything Macedonian. A charge of impiousness was trumped up against Aristotle. To get away prosecution he fled to Chalcis in Euboea so that ( Aristotle says ) “The Athenians might non hold another chance of transgressing against doctrine as they had already done in the individual of Socrates” ( Encyclopedia 5 ) . In the first twelvemonth of his abode at Chalcis he complained of a tummy unwellness and died in 322 BC ( Encyclopedia 7 ) . One of Aristotle’s Hagiographas is about weather forecasting.
His theories are based on his belief that all objects in the universe are composed of signifier and affair and the universe is arranged harmonizing to the comparative standing each object occupies in the existence ( Shakian 127 ) . This footing led to his theory that any gesture was from the centre or to the centre ( Encyclopedia 28 ) . Aristotle saw the existence as a graduated table lying between the two extremes: signifier without affair on one terminal. and affair without signifier on the other terminal. Additionally. he believed all affair is made of four organic structures: fire. air. H2O. and Earth ( Encyclopedia 29 ) .
With this information as a footing. it is no admiration that any staying theories would likely be wrong. Scientific fact can non confute that all objects are of signifier and affair. Any one can hold or differ with that doctrine. However. scientific fact does demo that motion can happen in waies off from the centre or toward the centre. For illustration. solar radiation from the Sun does non go in direct lines to or from a centre. Some of the radiation spreads into infinite. Some is reflects from the earth’s surface and is lost into infinite ( Lutgens 37-43 ) .
Air molecules do non travel toward or off from a centre. Air particles move in an infinite figure of waies due to molecule size. form. weight and composing. Finally. Aristotle’s theory that affair is made of four organic structures is dramatically short sighted. Air is a mixture of at least nine different constituents and is invariably altering in composing. Nitrogen and O make up about 99 % of the volume of dry air. Of all the constituents of air. C dioxide is the most involvement to meteorologists ( Lutgens 5 ) . In all equity. Aristotle had no manner to step or find the exact constituents of the ambiance.
In book 1. portion 3 of Aristotle’s weather forecasting. Aristotle describes his account of H2O vapour. His account describes the country between the surface of the Earth and the seeable part of the Milky Way. It is of import to observe that he views the Milky Way as a plane or upper degree surface ( Aristotle. “Meteorology” 253 ) . Aristotle is really near to a scientific reply when he deduced “that what instantly surrounds the Earth is non mere air. but a kind of vapor. and that its diaphanous nature is the ground why it condenses back to H2O again” ( Aristotle. “Meteorology” 253 ) .
His logic is interesting when he indicates that this sweep of a organic structure can non be fire “for so all the remainder would hold dried up” ( Aristotle “Meteorology” 254 ) . In portion 9. Aristotle addressed the issue of precipitation. He explained that air distilling into H2O becomes a cloud. Mist is what remains when a cloud condenses into H2O. He farther explained that when H2O falls in little beads. it is drizzle. and when the beads are larger. it is called rain ( Aristotle “Meteorology” 267 ) . This is one country where Aristotle was close to accurate. One defect is his position of the Milky Way as a level plane.
Science has shown that the Milky Way is merely one of an infinite figure of star galaxies. Aristotle realized H2O vapour existed. He besides realized that the country between the Earth and the celestial spheres was non fire. What Aristotle deduced as H2O vapour is scientifically referred to as a package of air. As the air package rises. it cools and may distill to organize a cloud ( Lutgens 81 ) . Aristotle believed the remains of H2O vapour that did non organize a cloud was mist. Actually. what remains is merely other air packages. The energy used to distill the air molecule is released as latent heat making a rhythm of lifting and droping air molecules ( Lutgens 82-83 ) .
Aristotle provided names for the size of H2O droplets. It is possible that Aristotle coined the names drizzle and rain. Scientifically. mizzle is defined as little droplets of less than. 5 millimeter. Rain is defined as droplets of. 5 millimeter to 5 millimeter ( Lutgens 131 ) . Aristotle dedicated several chapters to the theory of air currents. Without scientific measurings. the cause or theory of air current was hard to find or explicate. Aristotle compared air current to a fluxing river in book 1 ( Aristotle “Meteorology” 348 ) . Unfortunately. Aristotle could non spot why the river of air current ne’er dried up.
Therefore. he abandoned that theory and analogy of air current and merely tried to explicate rivers alternatively. In book two. he dedicated three more chapters to weave. Aristotle used his theory of H2O vapour and direct observation of something he called fume to depict the happening of air current. He related the lifting H2O vapour and the heat of the Sun. This combination created air current. Rain contributed to weave development by doing unagitated air currents after a rain ( Encyclopedia 191 ) . Wind must hold been a hard topic for Aristotle to explicate. sing how much was written about the topic.
The facts indicate he was near to an reply but ne’er to the full understood the construct of air current. The definition of air current is the consequence of horizontal differences in air force per unit area. Air flows from countries of high force per unit area to countries of lower force per unit area. It is nature’s method to equilibrate inequalities of force per unit area. Unequal warming of the earth’s surface generates the force per unit area differences. Therefore. solar radiation is the ultimate drive force of air current ( Lutgens 149 ) . The effects Aristotle explained were frequently the consequences of the force per unit area alterations. He realized the Sun had some influence.
The clam air current after a rain is an happening with strong electrical storms that leave a micro graduated table high-pressure dome in their aftermath ( Lutgens 153 ) . Aristotle explained the assorted meteoric phenomenon in simplistic footings. The accounts fit his theory of how affair and form were interrelated. Aristotle’s thoughts on H2O vapour and precipitation were slightly accurate. sing there were no tools to mensurate the ambiance in his clip. His positions on air current. nevertheless. were non accurate at all. He wrote extensively on air currents but ne’er to the full comprehended how air current occurred Works Cited Aristotle. Great Books of the Western World.
Volume 1. Chicago: Robert P. Gwinn. 1990. Aristotle. “Meteorology” 113 – 438. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Internet Address: hypertext transfer protocol: //classics. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. edu/Aristotle/meteorology. 1. i. hypertext markup language. Translated by E. W. Webster. 27 Aug. 2000. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy 1-321. University of Tennessee at Martin. Internet Address: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. utm. edu/research/iep/a/aristotl. htm. 24 Aug. 2000. Lutgens. Frederick K. and Edward J. Tarbuck. The Atmosphere. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 1992. Sahakian. William S. and Mabel Lewis Sahakian. Ideas of the Great Philosophers. New York: Barnes & A ; Noble Inc. . 1970.