Articles of alliance epoch:
* Each province functioned as its ain small state
* No national currency. many province currencies
* Paper money issued as a promise for difficult coinage such as gold and Ag * High rising prices


* Newburgh confederacy 1783: program by unpaid Continental ground forces officers to coerce Congress to presume powers of revenue enhancement over provinces * Northwest district:
* Ohio. Indiana. Illinois. Wisconsin. and Michigan country given to congress * Was the national authoritiess merely beginning of income
* Land regulation of 1785:
* townships six stat mis square to be auctioned off ( land guess ) * 16th acre reserved for public schools


* Annapolis convention:
* convention to turn to failings of the Articles of Confederation * merely 5 provinces send delegates

* Shays Rebellion:
* Led by Daniel Shay
* Massachusetts base on ballss high revenue enhancements to pay off radical war debt. but will no longer accept paper money. merely difficult currency accepted as payment for revenue enhancements * Many famers foreclosed on for default of revenue enhancements * Mobs non stopped because there is no military

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* Event that exposes the failings and killed the Articles

* Philadelphia Convention/ Constitutional convention:
* May- September 1787
* To “revise” The Articles
* Jefferson and Adams absent
* Virginia program:
* Presented by James Madison
* A bicamel legislative assembly based on population/equality
* 3 subdivisions of authorities






The Federalist # 10:
* By James Madison
* Propaganda for Federalists pressing for stronger cardinal authorities. * Says authorities is excessively weak
* Public well-being is degraded because of rival parties. excessively much discord * Destroy autonomy or give every citizen the same options. passions and involvements ; but cant destroy autonomy because it is indispensable ; to political relations * Government is to protect people from themselves


* Various and unequal distribution of belongings
* Gov needs to modulate involvements
* Separation of powers ; work forces unfit to be both Judgess and parties * Strong big democracy would be better than many province authoritiess

The Fundamental law:
* Article 1 Section 8: National authorities powers
* Article 1 subdivision 9: State authorities powers
* Merely manner to amend the fundamental law is for 2/3 of both senate and HoR O.K. . so province ballot and 75 % must O.K. .


The Great via media:
* Proposed by Roger Sherman
* Bi-camel legislative assembly:
* 1 House of equality: the senate. 6 twelvemonth footings
* 1 house based on population: The Hose of Representatives. 2 twelvemonth footings * Senate was a cheque on the “mob”
* HoR originally each province got one representative for every 30000 people. capped at 435




* 3/5 via media: slaves count as 3/5 of a individual. but the state’s revenue enhancement measure was relative to the state’s population. Win on both sides. Issue of bondage put off until 1808 * 9/13 provinces needed to sign fundamental law.

Limits on direst democracy:
* Electoral college
* To win the presidential election a campaigner needs a bulk greater than 51 % * Voters were to choose two names: first bulk was president ; 2nd bulk was frailty president ( non how it is done today ) . * Originally voters selected by province legislative assemblies. Now each party chooses their voters on party trueness because of the victors take all system. it is possible to win the popular ballot but will the Electoral College.

Amendments:
1. Freedom of speech/expression/religion etc.
2. Right to bear weaponries
3. No billeting in peacetime
4. Warrant needed/probable cause
5. Right to stay soundless. Rights of the accused. Speedy Jury test by equals. ability to name informants. 6. Protected from dual hazard. eminent sphere ( obliging public involvement. merely compensation ) 7. Right to civil test by jury




8. Cruel and unusual penalty protections
9. Unremunerated rights ; other rights non specifically listed in the fundamental law. 10. States retain reserved powers.

1789 George Washington nem con elected by the Electoral College. inaugurated in NYC. Set the case in point of being “presidential”

Unwritten fundamental law:
* Largely case in points set by GW
* 2 footings of president ( now an amendment )
* Acting in a “presidential” mode
* Appointing cabinets
* Alexander Hamilton- Sec. of Treasury
* Randolph- Attorney general
* Thomas Jefferson- Sec. of State
* Knox- Sec. of War
* Being called Mr. President








Alexander Hamilton’s economic programs:
1. Enable authorities creditors to interchange old depreciated securities at face value for new authorities bonds 2. The Premise Plan:
a. Government assumes debts from the provinces radical war debts. Estimated from 40-50 million B. States such as Maryland approved of the authorities taking their debts. but it was extremely unpopular for other provinces that had already paid their Debs. c. Chiefly to set up recognition of the United States of America d. Dinnertime via media made in order to go through program:

i. Madison. Hamilton. and Jefferson agree to travel the capital from NYC to D. C. 3. Taxs:
e. Whiskey tax- “sin” revenue enhancement rule
two. Leads to Whisky Rebellion
three. Chiefly PA husbandmans who distilled whiskery
four. Didn’t like that the accused had to travel tribunal far off f. A excise tax- internal revenue enhancement



4. National bank
g. Quasi- public/private ownership
h. Original 20 twelvemonth charter
I. Presently known as the Federal Reserve
j. Madison and Jefferson wholly oppose because a national bank was non in the powers of the national authorities in the fundamental law. k. Hamilton said the bank was covered under Article 1 subdivision 18: Necessary and proper/ elastic clause



* 1793 Jefferson resigns because he was fed up with George Washington’s favouritism of Hamilton. Later founds the Jeffersonian democrat-republicans.

* XYZ matter:
* 3 Americans sent to France to negociate sing harassment o American ships * France wanted a laager payoff ( around $ 250000 ) merely to speak to Charles Talleyrand

* Neutrality announcement of 1793: America will stay impersonal sing the feud between France and England * Both states harassed our transportation
* Britain impresses crewmans into the British naval forces

* War of 1812
* War hawks disquieted with impressments and harassed trading * Tariffs on U. S.
* Consequences
* African Americans had a sense of pride signifier combat in the war * New sense of patriotism
* Andrew Jacksons a war hero ( even though his triumph was technically after the war was over ) * Indians
* Cherokee adopted s written fundamental law
* Offense punishable by decease anyone who transferred land to white ownership without the consent of tribal governments * Tecumseh attempts to unify the Indians creates a pan Indian motion * Indian Intercourse Act ( Nonintercourse Act ) : 1790





* jurisprudence saying that the United States would modulate trade and interaction with Indian folks. created public pacts negociating land

* Alien and Sedition Acts of the Apostless: 1798
* increased the residence demand for American citizenship from five to fourteen old ages * authorized the president to imprison or deport foreigners considered “dangerous to the peace and safety of the United States” * Restricted speech critical of the authorities.

* Designed to hush and weaken the Democratic-Republican Party.
Negative reaction to the Alien and Sedition Acts helped lend to the Democratic-Republican triumph in the 1800 elections.

* The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions:
* Nullified the Alien and Sedition Acts
* Article 6 of fundamental law corsets that national Torahs greater than province Torahs

* Election of 1800:
* Very awful election between John Adams vs. Thomas Jefferson * Jefferson called negro president for his alleged personal businesss with Sally Heming’s that spawned 5 illicit kids * Tie. Hamilton convinces HoR to vote for Jefferson

* Jefferson wins. Peaceful Passage between disposals

* Revolution of 1800- Jefferson position of authorities
* Cuts size of military
* Gets rid of excise revenue enhancements
* Very informal president


* Louisiana purchase:
* U. S. offers $ 10 million for New Orleans. France counter offers with $ 15 million for Louisiana district * Doubles the size of U. S.
* Louis and Clark sent out to research with Sacajawea

* Embargo act of 1807:
* Cut of all trade with state interfering with our transportation ( England and France ) * New England blatantly breaks regulations

* Henry Clays “American System”
* Continuation of National Bank
* Continuation of foreign duties
* National authorities make internal betterments such as roads *


-President # 5: James Monroe 1817-1825
* Last president of Virginia dynasty
* Era of Good Feelingss
* End of war of 1812 in 1815
* Battle of new Orleans ended war on high note
* Resurgence of patriotism
* No big cabals between rival parties
* Federalists die out and the Democratic-Republicans is the lone party * Modern twenty-four hours democrats stem from the Democratic-Republicans * Sectional cabals within party






* Secretary of State: John Quincy Adams. President Adams son * Robert “Fulton’s Folly”
* First successful steamboat the “Clermont”
* Important because steamboats can sail in any way regardless of current

* Internal betterments
* Canals. roads. turnpikes. Bridgess. beacons
* National route funded by national authorities
* By 1820 most betterments had to be funded by states/private sector * Henry Clay’s “The American System”
* Government engagement in modulating Bankss ( national bank ) * National sponsorship for internal betterments
* Add protective duties




* The Adams-Onis Treaty/Transcontinental pact: 1819
* defined the U. S. -Mexico boundary line
* America gained Florida district
* Spain release its claims to the state of Oregon North of the 42 grades parallel ; United provinces. Britain. and Russia all had claims to Oregon district.


* Culture:
* American literature develops
* Nathaniel Hawthorn
* James Fennimore Cooper


* The Missouri Compromise
* 1819 Missouri eligible for statehood
* Balance between the free provinces and break one’s back provinces were balances. and this add-on would countervail the balance * Tallmadge amendment:
* Submitted by James Tallmadge. Jr
* Forbiding the farther debut of bondage
* Did non go through because people feared it limited provinces rights on bondage * Ultimately added as a slave province. but Maine added as a fr4ee province * Line parallel to southern boundary line of Missouri drawn: North of the 36 30’ line were to be free provinces. south slave provinces * Merely applies to Louisiana purchase




* The Monroe Doctrine: 1823
* Britain wanted to do a joint statement with Unites States about Latin America but we say nope. * Europe is non to interfere in western hemisphere any longer * Statement that European colonisation of the Americas is over * Unites States is the police officer of the Americas. now stay out * Put together by John Quincy Adams

* Massive statement without and existent ability to endorse it up if tested * Collects dust until around 1900 when Teddy Roosevelt comes around

* Election of 1824:
* No opposing parties
* Between
* John Quincy Adams30. 5 % popular ballot
* Andrew Jackson43. 1
* Henry Clay13. 1
* Crawford13. 2
* No bulk in electoral college
* HoR decides ballot
* The Corrupt Bargain:
* JQA solicits support from Clay. And in return he makes Clay secretary of province * ^Secretary of province seen as a stepping rock to the presidential term









* Election of 1824:
* Jackson wins in landslide
* Jackson the quintessential all American president
* Fist president born west of Appalachian Mountains
* 1828 called Age of Jackson
* Democracy increases ; belongings demand dropped




* 1820-1860 Antebellum period ( pre Civil War period )
* Industrial revolution stage I
* Erie Canal:
* Started 1817. completed 1823
* Connects Hudson river to Great Lakes. facilitate trade E to west * Most prolific of internal betterments
* State funded under governor Dewitt Clinton
* Called “Clintons Great Ditch”
* Made Syracuse. Rochester ( flour metropolis ) and Buffalo big industrial metropoliss due to canal * Cost to transport a ton of grain: pre-canal: $ 100
On canal: $ 5
* Factors that spurred rapid industrialisation
* The Transportation Revolution
* By 1830 most canals replaced by trains. 1830-1860 30000 stat mis of path laid largely in north *










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