Kool Breweries Ltd: An Overview Alcoholic Beverages Brewing: How Beer is made Brewing: Procedure Overview Beer Production: Flowchart Beer Production: Ingredients Beer Production Process o o o O O O o Squashing Lautering Boiling and Hopping Hop Separation and Cooling Fermentation Filtration Packaging 13 13 14 14 15 16 17 18 4 5 8 9 10 11 Quality Control in Beer Production 3 Kool Breweries Ltd: An Overview Kool Breweries Limited is a premium-branded drink company dedicated to presenting quality merchandises enjoyed by 1000000s around the universe every twenty-four hours.

An academic visit to the Kool Brewery fabrication works in Haryana was organized as a portion of the class ‘Biotech Plant Site Layout’ on the 19th March 2007. This visit provided with the chance to detect the different procedures involved in the beer fabrication. i. e. squashing. lautering. commotion pooling. agitation. filtration and packaging. Besides the quality control measures being adopted to keep the quality of the beer to international criterions and the basic layout of the works were besides observed.

The visit was a really utile academic every bit good as practical exposure and we look frontward to more of such visits in future to heighten both our theoretical. proficient and practical cognition. 4 Alcoholic Beverages An alcoholic drink incorporating ethyl alcohol. is a drink Ethanol is a psychotropic drug. a sedative. and many societies regulate or curtail its sale and ingestion. Countries place assorted legal limitations on the sale of alcoholic drinks to immature people. The industry and ingestion of intoxicant is notably found ( to some grade ) in most civilizations and societies around the universe. from hunter-gatherer folks to organized nation-states.

The ingestion of intoxicant is frequently of import at societal events in such societies and may be an of import facet of a community’s civilization. The concentration of intoxicant in a drink may be specified in per centum intoxicant by volume ( ABV ) . in per centum by weight ( sometimes abbreviated w/w for weight for weight ) . or in cogent evidence. Most barm can non turn when the concentration of intoxicant is higher than approximately 18 % by volume. so that is a practical bound for the strength of fermented drinks such as vino. beer. and interest.

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Strains of barm have been developed that can last in solutions of up to 25 % intoxicant by volume. but these were bred for ethyl alcohol fuel production. non beverage production. 5 Alcoholic Beverages • Mead – fermented honey and H2O. sugar in honey is excessively concentrated for barms to turn so it must be diluted. Probably made by early worlds by accident ab initio. Mead is made now by boiling diluted honey and adding nitrogencontaining compounds. so yeast civilization. Fermentation procedure takes 6-8 hebdomads. • Wine – Yeasts are present on fruit teguments so agitation can happen of course.

Wine was likely produced by chance every bit long as 10. 000 ybp but that is merely a conjecture. • Beers – have been made for at least 6000 old ages. Brewing has been a hit and miss procedure until about 200 old ages ago. until so it was hard to command quality. High quality beer has three basic ingredients: barley malt. hops. and H2O. Adjuncts are used extensively in inexpensive beers. 6 • Sake – “rice wine” – Conversion of rice amylum to sugar is done by Aspergillus ( bread cast ) . Yeast are so added for agitation. concluding intoxicant concentration is 19 % and is fortified to 20-22 % .

• Chicha – maize beer. Central and S. America. made from chewed maize. • Distillation o Whiskeys – distilled from “beers” and aged – Scotch. Bourbon. Rye. O Cognacs and brandies – distilled from vinos. O Grain intoxicant is 95 % = 190 cogent evidence O Gin and vodka – ethyl alcohol + H2O. gin is flavored. o Rum – fermented molasses or sugar cane juice 7 Brewing: How Beer is Made Brewing is the production of alcoholic drinks and intoxicant fuel through agitation. This is the method used in beer production. Brewing is basically a natural procedure.

The art and scientific discipline of brewing prevarications in change overing natural nutrient stuffs into a pure. delighting drink. Although great paces have been made with the techniques for accomplishing high-quality production. beer today is still a drink brewed from natural merchandises in a traditional manner. Although the chief ingredients of beer have remained changeless ( H2O. barm. malt and hops ) . it is the precise formula and timing of the brew that gives one a different gustatory sensation from another. The production of beer is one of the most closely supervised and controlled fabrication procedures in our society.

Apart from brewing company expenditures on research and quality control designed to accomplish the highest criterions of uniformity and pureness in the merchandise. the production of beer is besides capable to regular review and reappraisal by federal and provincial Health Departments. Substances used in the brewing procedure are approved by Health Canada. On norm. a batch of beer will take about 30 yearss to bring forth. To be more specific. brewing takes nine and a half hours. while agitation and aging combined take between 21 and 35 yearss for ales and laagers severally.

8 Brewing: Procedure Overview The grain used as the natural stuff is normally barley. but rye. maize. rice and burgoo are besides employed. In the first phase the grain is malted. either by doing it to shoot or by unreal agencies. This converts the saccharides to dextrin and maltose. and these sugars are so extracted from the grain by soaking in a mash tun ( VAT or cask ) and so fomenting in a lauter tun. The ensuing spirits. known as sweet wort. is so boiled in a Cu vas with hops. which give a acrimonious spirit and helps to continue the beer.

The hops are so separated from the wort and it is passed through hair-raisers into zymosis vass where the barm is added-a procedure known as pitching-and the chief procedure of change overing sugar into intoxicant is carried out. ( For treatment of agitation see the chapter Pharmaceutical industry. ) The beer is so chilled to. centrifuged and filtered to clear up it ; it is so ready for despatch by keg. bottle. aluminum can or bulk conveyance. Figure 65. 8 is a flow chart of the brewing procedure. 9 Beer Production: Flowchart 10 Beer Production: Ingredients.

The H2O must be pure. with no hint of bacteriums. This is critical. because it allows the other ingredients to let go of all their spirit. 95 % of breweries have their ain spring or natural good. Barley is a cereal that offers a cardinal advantage: it can be preserved for a long clip after reaping. In order for barley to be used in the devising of beer. it must foremost be malted. It is malted barley that gives beer its characteristic colour and gustatory sensation. Hops or “green gold” come from a mounting works with male and female flowers ; merely the female flowers are used. There are assorted assortments. runing from really acrimonious to aromatic.

Hops grew of course in our parts in ancient times. and this works has been used by beer makers since clip immemorial. In antiquity. it could be replaced by mixtures of aromatic herbs. in peculiar Rosmarinus officinalis and thyme. which had the same preserving consequence as hops but of class gave the resulting drink a rather different spirit. Yes. it is hops that give beer its characteristic resentment. and this works became so successful that in the eighteenth century all assortments of beer contained hops. 11 Yeasts transform the sugars in the must into intoxicant and C dioxide.

The type of barm used varies harmonizing to the type of beer. There was a clip when adult male had no control over barms in beer. Louis Pasteur was able to explicate their function in the brewing procedure. and yeast civilization was developed thanks to the work of the Danish scientist Hansen. Nowadays there are two chief assortments of barms that are used in brewing: Saccharomycess cerevisiae and Saccharomycess carlsbergensis ( bottomfermenting ) . Certain other merchandises are used in the devising of beer. in peculiar spices: Chinese parsley. ginger. cloves. sage. fennel. mustard seeds. anise seed. cinnamon. etc. 12 Beer Production Process Mashing.

Malt is added to heated. purified H2O and. through a carefully controlled clip and temperature procedure. the malt enzymes break down the amylum to saccharify and the complex proteins of the malt to simpler nitrogen compounds. Squashing takes topographic point in a big. unit of ammunition armored combat vehicle called a “mash mixer” or “mash tun” and requires careful temperature control. At this point. depending on the type of beer desired. the malt is supplemented by amylum from other cereals such as maize. wheat or rice. Lautering The mash is transferred to a straining ( or lautering ) vas which is normally cylindrical with a slotted false underside two to five centimeters above the true underside.

The liquid infusion drains through the false underside and is run away to the brew boiler. This infusion. a sugar solution. is called “wort” but it is non yet beer. Water is “sparged” ( or sprayed ) though the grains to rinse out every bit much of the infusion as possible. The “spent grains” are removed and sold as cowss feed. 13 Boiling and Hoping The brew boiler. a immense caldron keeping from 70 to 1. 000 hectoliters and made of glistening Cu or chromium steel steel. is likely the most dramatic sight in a brewery. It is fitted with spirals or a jacketed underside for steam warming and is designed to boil the wort under carefully-controlled conditions.

Boiling. which normally lasts about two hours. serves to concentrate the wort to a desired specific gravitation. to sterilise it and to obtain the coveted infusion from the hops. The hop resins contribute spirit. olfactory property and resentment to the brew. Once the hops have flavoured the brew. they are removed. When applicable. highly-fermentable sirup may be added to the boiler. Undesirable protein substances that have survived the journey from the mash sociable are coagulated. go forthing the wort clear. Hop Separation and Cooling After the beer has taken on the spirit of the hops. the wort so proceeds to the “hot wort tank” .

It is so cooled. normally in a simple-looking setup called a “plate cooler” . As the wort and a coolant flow past each other on opposite sides of unstained steel home bases. the temperature of the wort drops from boiling to approximately 10 to 15. 5 °C. a bead of more than 65. 6 °C. in a few seconds. 14 Fermentation The wort is so moved to the zymosis vass and barm. the restrained cardinal enigma of ancient brewer’s art. is added. It is the barm. which is a life. single-cell Fungi. that breaks down the sugar in the wort to carbon dioxide and intoxicant. It besides adds many beer-flavouring constituents.

There are many sorts of barms. but those used in doing beer belong to the genus Saccharomycess. The beer maker uses two species of this genus. One barm type. which rises to the top of the liquid at the completion of the agitation procedure. is used in brewing ale and stout. The other. which drops to the underside of the brewing vas. is used in brewing laager. During agitation. which lasts approximately seven to 10 yearss. the barm may multiply sextuple and in the open-tank fermenters used for brewing ale. a creamy. bubbling caput may be seen on top of the brew. 15 Filtration.

Filtering the beer stabilizes the spirit. and gives beer its polished radiance and glare. Not all beer is filtered. When revenue enhancement finding is required by local Torahs. it is typically done at this phase in a graduated armored combat vehicle. Filters come in many types. Many use pre-made filtration media such as sheets or tapers. while others use a all right pulverization made of. for illustration. diatomaceous Earth. besides called diatomaceous earth. which is introduced into the beer and recirculated past screens to organize a filtration bed.

Filters range from unsmooth filters that remove much of the barm and any solids ( e. g. hops. grain atoms ) left in the beer. to filters fast plenty to strive colour and organic structure from the beer. Normally used filtration evaluations are divided into unsmooth. all right and unfertile. Rough filtration leaves some cloud cover in the beer. but it is perceptibly clearer than unfiltered beer. All right filtration gives a glass of beer that you could read a newspaper through. with no noticeable cloud cover. Finally. as its name implies. unfertile filtration is all right plenty that about all micro-organisms in the beer are removed during the filtration procedure. 16 Packaging.

In the bottle store of a brewery. returned empty bottles go through washers in which they receive a thorough cleansing. After rinsing. the bottles are inspected electronically and visually and go through on to the rotary filler. Some of these machines can make full up to 1. 200 bottles per minute. A “crowning” machine. integrated with the filler. topographic points caps on the bottles. The filled bottles may so go through through a “tunnel pasteurizer” ( frequently 23 meters from terminal to stop and able to keep 15. 000 bottles ) where the temperature of the beer is raised about 60 °C. for a sufficient length of clip to supply biological stableness. so cooled to room temperature.

Emerging from the pasteurizer. the bottles are inspected. labelled. placed in boxes. stacked on palettes and carried by lift truck to the warehousing countries to expect cargo. Besides in the bottle store may be the canning lines. where beer is packaged in tins for cargo. Packaged beer may be heat-pasteurized or micro-filtered. supplying a shelf-life of up to six months when decently stored. Draught beer. since it is usually sold and consumed within a few hebdomads. may non travel through this procedure.

The draught beer is placed in sterilised kegs ready for cargo. 17 Quality Control in Beer Production Setting up specifications is done all the clip. Brewers decide on the basic belongingss of original gravitation. colour. and spirit and from this develop a preparation of natural stuffs and a procedure to pull out what is wanted from them. Centripetal methods: Centripetal methods are non needfully easy to use ( and frequently ill used ) but are utile and rather inexpensive to make. They include an analysis of beer spirit ( doubtless beer’s most of import property ) . beer lucidity. colour. and froth.

Brewers who do non on a regular basis and critically gustatory sensation and visually analyze their beers in a formal scene deny themselves much critical information. Beer colour. on the other manus. can be measured in a comparator ( merely a light box set up for visually fiting colour – the human oculus is much better at this than most instruments ) or by rather inexpensive instruments. such as a colorimeter. A standard beer set aside for colour matching remains stable for rather a long clip if kept cold and in the dark. Perceivers can rate the beers on some centripetal graduated table.

Puting numerical values from instruments on spirit. haze. froth. colour. and so forth is where the problem starts. but that isn’t truly necessary for a simple quality-control plan. 18 Cycling a beer on some regular agenda ( e. g. daily ) between a warm topographic point ( 60° C ) and a cold one ( 40° C ) will make haze ; more stable beers withstand more rhythms than less stable 1s. Similarly. hive awaying a beer at 25° C in an archive ( a illusion name for a warm closet ) will promote microbic growing and other kinds of beer dislocation. Instrumental Analysis: The 2nd sort of specification and analysis is non conformable to centripetal testing.

igh on this list of “invisible” specifications has to be the original gravitation ( OG ) and the grade of fermentability ( hence intoxicant content ) of beers. These are most easy determined on wort but require an investing in some simple setup – a gravimeter and mensurating cylinder. The wort OG and fermentability are cardinal specifications for a beer. because beer is made from the fermentable part of the wort. These values besides allow a beer maker to cipher extract output from natural stuffs ( brewhouse output ) and predict beer output.

The grade of fermentability can be determined by a rapid agitation trial in which a high population of barm cells. with frequent agitation. quickly ferments out the wort. At the same clip. wort spirit and lucidity can be noted. A sample of wort. taken under sterile conditions and put aside in the archive. will uncover its microbiological position in a few yearss and state a good trade about the healthful position of the brewhouse. Package beer. on the other manus. must be analyzed for CO2 content ( carbonation ) and bottle “air” for spirit stableness. 19.

The microbiological position of a packaged beer. particularly one destined for a distant market. is of premier concern for beer spirit and for the safety of the devouring public ( possible for detonating bottles ) . The lone satisfactory microbiological trial is to go through at least 100 milliliter of beer through a 0. 45 micron membrane. so plate the membrane on media ( such as MRS ) under conditions ( for case anaerobic at about 25° C ) capable of observing the mark beings in low Numberss. A speedy strabismus at a beer sample under a microscope doesn’t cut it.


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