A taxon that contains organisms that do not share a common ancestor is called
polyphyletic
Which of the following statements about biological classification is false?
The same binomial name may be given to two different organisms as long as they are in different phyla
Which of the following traits is likely to be unsuitable for phylogenetic analysis?
Learned Behavior
Phylogenetic analysis of a section of the plant genus Leptosiphon
Revealed that L. “bicolor” is actually three distinct lineages
In the classification system devised by Linnaeus, the names of _______ of plants end with the suffix _______, whereas those of animals end with _______
families; -aceae; -idae
The _______ of a phylogenetic tree represents the common ancestor, the _______ represent places where lineages diverge, and the _______ axis represents time. Assume that the tree is oriented as described in the textbook
root; nodes; horizontal
Phylogenetic trees
are constructed using the parsimony principle
Refer to the diagram below showing a phylogenic tree. If birds are not considered reptiles, but reptiles include turtles, lizards and crocodiles, the group called “Reptiles” would be (photo 1)
paraphyletic
9. Which of the following statements about traits is false?
Synapomorphies are shared ancestral traits.
A _______ is any group of organisms we name, whereas a _______ is any _______ that consists of all the evolutionary descendents of a common ancestor.
taxon; clade; taxon
Which of the following phylogenies are equivalent? (photo 2)
A and B
The phylogenetic tree shown in below is based on (photo 3)
DNA sequences of just the viruses at the tips of the tree.
A sea squirt is thought to be more closely related to vertebrates than once thought because
both vertebrate embryos and sea squirt larvae have notochords
Refer to the diagram below showing a polygenetic tree of immunodeficiency viruses. Which of the following statements is false? (photo 4)
HIV-1 and HIV-2 are more closely related to each other than to any of the simian immunodeficiency viruses.
Molecular clocks
All of the above (would not keep the same time for all genes, must be calibrated, work best for a gene in closely related species, assume that the rate of change of a gene is relatively constant)
All clades are subsets of larger clades. The most inclusive clade on the following diagram is _______; the least inclusive clade includes the _______. (photo 5)
D. vertebrates; chimpanzee
The bones in the wings of birds and bats are _______ because they derived from a _______ ancestor, while the wings are _______ traits.
homologous; common; homoplastic
Phylogenetic analyses of opsin pigments have allowed scientists to infer that ancestral archosaurs
may have been nocturnal
Based on the figure below, which of the following taxa are monophyletic? (photo 6)
Both a and c (blue and red)
Refer to the phylogenetic tree shown in below. Which of the following statements is true? (photo 7)
The mouse is the sister species to the chimpanzee.
x

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