Which action influences the abiotic components of an organism’s environment?
water pollution
Which aspects of a religion’s climate have the most impact on plants and animals?
temperature and moisture
True or false? Weather is defined as the prevailing long-term atmospheric conditions in a particular region
false; climate is defined as the prevailing long term weather conditions in a particular region; weather is defined as the short-term atmospheric conditions of temperature, sunlight, moisture, and wind
Hadley cells
as warm air rises, air at the top of the atmosphere is pushed poleward and cools
Which location on Earth receives the most solar radiation per unit area?
equator
What are rain shadows?
dry regions on the leeward side of mountain ranges
What desert is caused by a Hadley cell?
Sahara desert in Africa
What are the two major factors determining the distribution of terrestrial biomes?
temperature and rainfall
What of these biomes is characterized by little rainfall?
desert
What is the largest biome on Earth?
coniferous forest
What biome is characterized by an extensive canopy that allows little light to penetrate to the ground and by the presence of epiphytes?
tropical rain forest
What biome is characterized by the presence of permafrost?
tundra
In most cases, the two major climatic factors affecting the distribution of organisms in terrestrial ecosystems are
water and temperature
What is a biome?
a major type of ecosystem
What is a characteristic of the photic zone of a freshwater biome?
the presence of algae
The benthic zone of aquatic environments is defined as the
substrate at the bottom of the body of water
The____biome is the largest of Earth’s biomes
marine
A(n)____is a region where fresh water and salt water mix
estuary
Wetlands have
slow water movement or no water movement and no turnover
Estuaries are
very productive and are used as breeding grounds by many species of fish
Tropical coral reefs generally
exist in relatively shallow areas of the ocean
What drives water movement in some lakes?
temperature
Littoral zone
freshwater plants may be rooted here
Photic zone
light penetrates here
Aphotic zone
no photosynthesis occurs here
Intertidal zone
alternately dry and submerged
Neritic zone
extends to edge of continental shelf
Oceanic zone
generally low nutrient levels
Sun melts ice, surface water warms to 4C and sinks
water mixes, bringing oxygen to the bottom and nutrients to the surface, warm surface water is separated from cooler bottom water by thermocline, surface water cools to 4C and sinks, water mixes bringing oxygen to the bottom and nutrients to the surface, ice forms at the surface-water is warmer with increasing depth (winter)
Which of these biomes-tundra, coniferous forest, temperate broadleaf forest, temperate grassland, savanna, chaparral, desert, tropical rainforest-require periodic fires to maintain their existence?
savanna, chaparral, temperate grassland, and coniferous forest
In ecological terms, disturbance is an event such as a storm, fire, or human activity that changes a community, removing organisms and altering resource availability. Which of the following statements about the effects of disturbance is correct?
disturbances can create patches of different habitats in a community
Ecology is the
scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the environment; these interactions determine the distribution of organisms and their abundance
Climate
the long-term prevailing weather conditions in an area
Four major abiotic components of climate are
temperature, precipitation, sunlight, and wind
Macroclimate
consists of patterns of the global, regional, and landscape level
Microclimate
consists of very fine patterns, such as those encountered by the community of organisms underneath a fallen log
Global air circulation and precipitation patterns
play major roles in determining climate patterns
Water evaporates in the tropics
and warm, wet air masses flow from the tropics toward the poles
Rising air masses release
water and cause high precipitation, especially in the tropics
Dry, descending air masses
create arid climates, especially near 30 degrees north and south
Air flowing close to Earth’s surface
creates predictable global wind patterns
Cooling trade winds blow from
east to west in the tropics. prevailing westerlies blow from west to east in the temperate zones
Climate is affected by seasonality
large bodies of water, and mountains
Microclimate is determined by
fine-scale differences in the environment that affect light and wind patterns
Every environment is characterized by differences in
abiotic and biotic factors
Abiotic factors
including nonliving attributes such as temperature, light, water, and nutrients
Biotic factors
including other organisms that are part of an individual’s environment
Changes in earth’s climate can
profoundly affect the biosphere
One way to predict the effects of future global climate change is
to study previous changes
As climate changes, species
that have difficulty dispersing may have smaller ranges or could become extinct
Biomes are
major life zones characterized by vegetation type (terrestrial biomes) or physical environment (aquatic biomes)
Climate is very important
in determining why terrestrial biomes are found in certain areas
Climate affects the
latitudinal patterns of terrestrial biomes
Terrestrial biomes are often
named for major physical or climatic factors and for vegetation
Terrestrial biomes usually
grade into each other, without sharp boundaries
Ecotone
the area of intergradation, may be wide or narrow
Vertical layering is an important feature of
terrestrial biomes
Layering of vegetation in all
biomes provides diverse habitats for animals
Biomes are dynamic and usually
exhibit extensive patchiness
Disturbance is an
event such as a storm, fire, or human activity that changes a community
Terrestrial biomes
can be characterized by distribution, precipitation, temperature, plants, and animals
Tropical rain forest
warm and wet; diverse; vertically layered; human influence: clear cutting,
Desert
30 degrees latitude; dry; urbanization, irrigated, agriculture
Savanna
equatorial, subequatorial; precipitation seasonal, fire-and drought-adapted
Chaparral
mid-latitude coastal regions, precipitation seasonal, fire-and drought-adapted, urbanization and agriculture
Grasslands
precipitation seasonal, fire and drought adapted, grazers, developed as agricultural land
Coniferous forest
clargest terrestrial biome, logging
Temperate broadleaf forest
precipitation year round, much intact forest no longer exists
Tundra
high elevation, dry and cold
Aquatic biomes account for the
largest part of the biosphere in terms of area
Aquatic biomes show less
latitudinal variation than terrestrial biomes
Marine biomes have salt concentrations of about
3%
The largest marine biome is made of oceans
which cover about 75% of Earth’s surface and have an enormous impact on the biosphere
Freshwater biomes have
salt concentrations of less than .1%
Freshwater biomes are closely linked
to soils and the biotic components of the surrounding terrestrial biomes
Thermocline
in oceans and most lakes, a tempearture; separates the warm upper layer from the cold deeper water
Turnover
many lakes undergo a semiannual mixing of their waters
Turnover mixes oxygenated
water from the surface with nutrient-rich water from the bottom
Semi-annual mixing of water (turnover)
mixes oxygenated water from the surface with nutrient-rich water from the bottom
Major aquatic biomes can be characterized by
their physical environment, chemical environment, geological features, photosynthetic organisms, and heterotrophs
Oligotrophic
oxygen rich, nutrient poor
Eutrophic
oxygen poor, nutrient rich
Human induced nutrient enrichment leads to
algal blooms, oxygen depletion and fish kills
Wetlands
highly productive, filter and purify water, reduce flooding, human influence has destroyed up to 90% of wetlands
Rivers and streams
current; damming and floor control have impaired natural functioning
Estuaries
transition between river and sea
Intertidal zone characteristics
periodically submerged by tides, animals are adapted for clinging to substrate or burying in sand
Ocean Pelagic Zone
covers 70% of Earth’s surface; overfishing and pollution have played a big role in health of this biome
Coral reefs
calcium-carbonate skeletons of corals and their symbiont algae; sensitive to human disturbance; coral bleaching-climate change
Benthic Zone
seafloor of the coastal zone or offshore pelagic zone; overfishing and pollution have depleted fish populations
Species distributions are the result of
ecological and evolutionary interactions through time
Both biotic and abiotic factors influence
species and distribution
Ecologists ask questions
about where species occur and why species occur where they do
Dispersal is the
movement of individuals away from centers of high population density or from their area of origin
Dispersal contributes to the
global distribution of organisms
Natural range expansions show
the influence of dispersal on distribution
Some organisms do not
occupy all of their potential range
Species distribution may be
limited by habitat selection behavior
Biotic factors that affect the distribution of organisms may include
predation, herbivory, competition
Abiotic factors affecting the distribution of organisms include
temperature, water, sunlight, wind, rocks and soil
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