How does connective tissue differ from the other three major tissue types?
Connective tissue often consists of relatively few cells embedded in an extracellular matrix.
What describes loose connective tissue?
It is a loose weave of fibers that functions as a packing material.
Cartilage is found _____.
at the end of each bone
_____ is the connective tissue specialized for transport.
blood
What type of epithelium would you expect to find covering a surface subject to physical forces?
stratified epithelium
What type of epithelial tissue, found in the intestines, absorbs nutrients?
simple columnar epithelium
What tissue, found in the lungs, permits gas exchange by diffusion?
simple squamous epithelium
What type of epithelial tissue lines kidney tubules?
simple cuboidal cells
What type of muscle is responsible for contractions of the digestive tract and arteries?
smooth muscle
Cardiac muscle is the only muscle composed of _____ fibers.
branched
_____ muscle is attached to bones.
skeletal
A neuron consists of _____.
dendrites, a cell body, and axons
Nervous tissue functions _____.
to sense stimuli
What is an example of negative feedback?
After you eat, insulin stimulates the lowering of blood sugar levels.
Which component of a homeostatic system sends instructions based on sensory information?
Integrator
Which component of a homeostatic system perceives changes in some parameter of the environment?
sensor
Which action acts to warm a homeothermic body?
shivering
anatomy
biological form
physiology
biological function
interstitial fluid
fluid that fills the space between cells
tissue
groups of cells with similar appearances and a common function
organs
different types of tissue that are organized into functional units
organ system
groups of organs that work together and provide an additional level of organization
4 types of animal tissue
1. epithelial
2. connective
3. muscle
4. nervous
epithelial tissue
cover the outside of the body and line organs and cavities within the body. closely packed cells
cuboidal epithelium
dice shaped cells specialized for secretion
simple columnar epithelium
large brick shaped cells found where secretion or active absorption is important
simple squamous epithelium
single layer of platelike cells that function in the exchange of material by diffusion
stratified squamous epithelium
multilayered and regenerate rapidly, commonly found on surfaces like skin
pseudo stratified columnar epithelium
single layer of cells varying in height and the position of their nuclei
connective tissue
holds many tissues and organs together and in place
fibroblasts
cells within the matrix that secrete fiber proteins
macrophages
engulf foreign particles and nay cell debris by phagocytosis
tendon
attached muscle to bones
ligament
connects bones at joints
3 types of connective tissue fibers
1. collagenous fibers
2. reticular fibers
3. elastic fibers
collagenous fibers
provides strength and flexibility
reticular fibers
join connective tissue to adjacent tissue
elastic fibers
make tissue elastic
blood
has a liquid extracellular matrix called plasma
bone
a mineralized connective tissue
adipose tissue
a specialized loose connective tissue that stores fat in adipose cells
cartilage
contains collagenous fibers embedded in a matrix
muscle tissue
a tissue that is responsible for all types of body movement
3 types of muscle tissue`
1. skeletal
2. smooth
3. cardiac
skeletal muscle
attached to bones by tendons is responsible for voluntary movements
also called striated muscle
smooth muscle
lacks striation and is found in the walls of the digestive tract, urinary bladder, arteries, and other internal organs.
cardiac muscle
forms the contractile wall of the heart
nervous tissue
functions in the receipt, processing, and transmission of information
neurons
transmit nerve impulses as wells as support glial cells
glia cells
help nourish, insulate, and replenish neurons
endocrine system
signaling molecules released into the blood stream by endocrine cells are carried to all locations in the body
nervous system
neurons transmit signals along dedicated routes connecting specific locations in the body
hormones
signaling molecules that broadcast throughout the body by the endocrine system
regulator
uses internal mechanisms to control internal changes in the face of external fluctuation
conformer
allows its internal condition to change in accordance with external changes in the variable
homeostasis
“steady state” referring to the maintenance of internal balance
negative feedback
a control mechanism that reduces the stimulus
positive feedback
a control mechanism that amplifies the stimulus
cardiac rhythm
a set of physiological changes that occur every 24 hours
acclimatization
the gradual process by which an animal adjusts to changes in its external environment
thermoregulation
the process by which animals maintain their body temperature within a normal range
endothermic
humans and other mammals (birds too) that are warmed mostly by heat generated by their metabolism
ectothermic
nonvertebrates and reptiles that gain most of their heat from external sources
poikilotherm
an animal who’s body temp varies with its environment
homeotherm
animals that have a constant body temperature
integumentary system
the other covering of the body, consisting of the skin, hair, and nails
vasodilation
a widening of superficial blood vessels
vasoconstriction
a decrease in the diameter of superficial vessels that reduces blood flow and heat transfer
contercurrent exchange
the transfer of heat or solutes between fluids that are flowing in opposite directions
hypothalmus
contains the sensors for thermoregulation and also the circadian clock
bioenergetics
determines nutritional needs and is related to the animals size, activity, and environment
metabolic rate
the sum of all energy an animal uses in a given time interval
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
the minimum metabolic rate of a non growing endotherm that is at rest, has an empty stomach, and is not experiencing stress
standard metabolic rate (SMR)
the metabolic rate of a fasting non stressed ectotherm at rest at particular temperature
torpor
a physiological state of decreased activity and metabolism.
an adaptation that enables animals to save energy while avoiding difficult and dangerous conditions
hibernation
a long term torpor that is an adaptation to winter cold and food scarcity
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