self; segregation of genes
dihybrid; segregation of genes
dihybrid; independent assortment
test; segregation of genes
test; independent assortment
Homozygous dominant: RR
Homozygous recessive: rr
Homozygous dominant: rr
Homozygous recessive: RR
through a dihybrid cross in which the genes are linked on the same chromosome.
through a dihybrid cross in which the genes are on different chromosomes.
when crossing over occurs.
in a test cross.
occurs when heterozygotes show a phenotype intermediate between those of the
involves the expression of both alleles at a locus producing two different
is only found in mammalian enzyme production.
involves one allele having more than one phenotypic effect.
would result in pink flowers from a cross between white and red flowers.
results in a phenotypic ratio of 1:2:1 in the F2 generation from a monohybrid cross.
is the same as codominance.
involves the distinct expression of both alleles, as in the ABO blood group system.
occurs only in X-linked genes.
A) Mother: IAIA; father: IBIa
B) Mother: IAIO; father: IBIb
C) Mother: IAIO; father: IBIO
D) Mother: IAIB; father: IBIO
E) It is impossible for these individuals to have a child with type O blood.
B) incomplete dominance.
D) a hierarchy of dominance.
C) multiple alleles and the environmental influences on the expression of these genes.
E) discrete and qualitative genomic variation.
B) crossing over.
C) a mutation.
E) incomplete dominance.
A) Genes on the same chromosome are said to be linked.
B) Genes on the same chromosome assort independently.
C) Crossing over between two linked genes can alter phenotypes of progeny.
D) Crossing over results in recombinant phenotypes.
E) Genes on the same chromosome that are far apart have a higher recombination
frequency than those that are close together.
A) sex chromosome; autosomes
B) gene; autosomes
C) autosome; sex chromosomes
D) gene; sex chromosomes
E) allele; genes
A) male offspring would show the trait.
B) female offspring would be carriers.
C) female offspring who receive the mutant X chromosome would show the trait.
D) male offspring who receive the mutant X chromosome would show the trait.
E) female offspring would not carry the trait.
A) Independent assortment
B) Autosomal dominant
C) Autosomal recessive
D) Incomplete dominance
E) Sex-linked on X chromosome
B) from the mother.
C) from the father.
D) evenly from both the mother and the father.
E) by independent assortment.
A) Autosomal intermediate
B) Sex-linked recessive
C) Sex-linked dominant
D) Autosomal dominant
E) Autosomal recessive
A) does not occur in bacteria.
B) occurs by sexual reproduction in bacteria.
C) can result in bacterial strains resistant to antibiotics.
D) occurs only with plasmid DNA.
E) always involves recombination.
A) are not accessible to DNA binding proteins.
B) form three hydrogen bonds with each other.
C) are of a different length than G-C base pairs.
D) are more heat stable than G-C base pairs.
E) are chemically distinct from G-C base pairs.
A) The 3′ end is phosphorylated.
B) It is a double-stranded helix.
C) It has a uniform diameter.
D) It is a right-handed helix.
E) It is antiparallel (the two strands run in opposite directions).
A) lagging; telomerase
B) leading; DNA polymerase
C) leading; DNA helicase
D) lagging; DNA polymerase
E) leading; telomerase
A) somatic mutations are passed on to offspring produced by sexual reproduction.
B) somatic mutations may be passed to daughter cells by mitosis.
C) all mutations produce phenotypic changes.
D) meiosis is not required for the transmission of germ line mutations to the next
E) all mutations are point mutations.
A) is the result of a change in a codon for an amino acid in a protein to a stop codon.
B) results in a shorter mRNA transcript of the gene.
C) results in a protein that is truncated from the N terminal end.
D) would likely not affect the activity of a protein.
E) would not affect the primary structure of a protein.
A) is a result of a chromosomal deletion.
B) is always silent.
C) does not occur in noncoding regions of DNA.
D) is a change in a single nucleotide of DNA.
E) is not transmitted to daughter cells.
A) the molecular bonds of DNA.
B) the sugar and phosphate component of the DNA molecule’s surface.
C) how the purines and pyrimidines fit together in a double helix.
D) the antiparallel design of two strands of the DNA double helix.
E) that DNA replication was semiconservative.
A) add nucleotides to the growing daughter strand.
B) seal nicks along the sugar-phosphate backbone of the daughter strand.
C) unwind the parent DNA double helix.
D) generate primers to initiate DNA synthesis.
E) prevent reassociation of the denatured parental DNA strands.
A) at any time during or after synthesis of DNA.
B) only before mitosis.
C) only in the presence of DNA polymerase.
D) only after replication is complete.
E) only during replication.
A) Okazaki fragments are synthesized as part of the leading strand.
B) Replication forks represent areas of active DNA synthesis on the chromosomes.
C) Error rates for DNA replication are reduced by proofreading of the DNA
D) Ligases and polymerases function in the vicinity of replication forks.
E) The sliding clamp protein increases the rate of DNA synthesis.
A) Nitrous acid (HNO2)
D) Free radicals
E) Salt (NaCl)
A) DNA polymerase is unable to initiate replication without an origin.
B) the DNA polymerase enzyme can catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotides
only onto the 3′ (—OH) end of an existing strand.
C) RNA primase is the first enzyme in the replication complex.
D) primers mark the sites where helicase has to unwind the DNA.
E) they are the source of nucleotides for DNA polymerases.
only onto the 3′ (—OH) end of an existing strand.
A) Mutations are the raw material of evolution.
B) Lethal mutations can kill an organism during early development.
C) Mutations can be harmful if they result in the loss of functions of genes.
D) Somatic mutations either have no effect or are harmful to the organism.
E) Environmental change may alter whether a mutation is harmful or advantageous.
C) point mutation.
A) have high levels of telomerase.
B) have very low levels of telomerase.
C) undergo the polymerase chain reaction.
D) lack DNA polymerase.
E) lack Okazaki fragments.
A) RNA polymerase
B) The lagging strand
C) The primer
D) An Okazaki fragment
E) A dNTP
A) Eukaryotes are diploid, while prokaryotes are haploid.
B) Eukaryotes don’t have DNA helicase.
C) Eukaryotes have much larger genomes.
D) Eukaryotes have a less efficient DNA polymerase.
E) Eukaryotes don’t have Okazaki fragments.