What is the driving force of the water cycle?
a) The cyclical action of tides
b) The melting of ice and snow
c) Evaporation of water from oceans and land
d) Precipitation of water vapor to form rain and snow
– Evaporation of water from oceans and land
Water Cycle Process
– Precipitation
– Runoff
– Oceans
– Water vapor over oceans
– Water vapor over land
Which two processes in the water cycle likely would be out of balance, and how, if the mass balance of global water was rising in the oceans and falling on land?
a) Transpiration rates would be lower than precipitation rates of water over oceans
b) Runoff rates would be higher than transport of water vapor from ocean to land
c) Precipitation rates of water over land would be higher than evaporation rates of water over land
d) Runoff rates would be lower than evaporation rates of water over oceans
– Runoff rates would be higher than transport water vapor from ocean to land
Which of the following conditions would be expected to slow the rate of movement of water through the global water cycle?
a) reduce winds
b) increased solar radiation
c) increased diversion of surface freshwater into groundwater reservoirs
d) reduced precipitation over oceans
– Reduced winds
By what process does nitrogen enter the living components of ecosystems?
a) Absorbed as nitrogen gas from the atmosphere
b) Through fixation by microbes
c) By ingestion of plants or other primary producers whose tissues contain protein and other organic molecules themselves contain nitrogen
d) By human-made industrial process
– Through fixation by microbes
How are humans influencing the nitrogen cycle?
a) By increasing the rate of nitrogen fixation through industrial processes and intensive agriculture
b) By increasing the production of oxides of nitrogen and other chemical forms through livestock production and some forms of agriculture
c) By increasing the production of oxides of nitrogen and other chemical forms through burning fossil fuels and biomass
d) all of the above
All of the above
Which pathway represents the shortest path that a nitrogen atom in atmospheric nitrogen, N2, could travel and end up in a protein in a human?
a) N2, human
b) N2, bacterium, human
c) N2, bacterium, plant, human
d) N2, bacterium, animal, human
N2, bacterium, plant, human
A student remarks that it is a good thing that humans discovered how to use industrial processes to fix nitrogen because this ensures that the nitrogen cycle can remain intact if nitrogen-fixing bacteria ever go extinct. Evaluate the accuracy of this statement.
a) The statement is accurate because nitrogen-fixing bacteria are the only living things that can fix nitrogen through biochemical pathways, and their loss would be devastating.
b) The statement is accurate because humans are able to fix nitrogen on a large scale that rivals the rate of the process carried out by bacteria.
c) The statement is inaccurate because the product of nitrogen fixation through industrial processes does not have the same biological properties as the product of nitrogen fixation by bacteria.
d) The statement is inaccurate because humans would not be able to distribute the product of nitrogen fixation from industrial processes in the same way that bacteria are able to distribute it globally now.
– The statement is inaccurate because humans would not be able to distribute the product of nitrogen fixation from industrial processes in the same way that bacteria are able to distribute it globally now.
Which of the following is the major compartment for carbon in Earth’s system?
a) fossil fuels
b) living biomass
c) atmospheric CO2
d) dissolved CO2 in oceans
– Fossil fuels
How are humans influencing the carbon cycle?
a) By burning fossil fuels and manufacturing cement, which increases the atmospheric pool of CO2
b) Through changes in land use, which increases the atmospheric pools of CO2 and CH4
c) By cutting forest and burning biomass, which increases the atmospheric pool of CO2
d) All of the above
– All of the above
Suppose human activities that influence the carbon cycle came to a complete stop. Use the information provided in the figure to predict the net effect on global carbon cycling.
a) Carbon cycling would be brought into balance so that it moves at equal rates through all compartments.
b) Carbon cycling would be shifted toward an increase in deposition in sediments and fossil fuels and a decrease in inorganic carbon dioxide levels.
c) Carbon cycling would be shifted toward an increase in outgassing of carbon dioxide from ocean waters and a decrease in carbon levels in living plant biomass.
d) Carbon cycling would be shifted toward an increase in dissolution of carbon dioxide into ocean waters and a decrease in carbon levels in living plant biomass.
– Carbon cycling would be shifted toward an increase in deposition in sediments and fossil fuels and a decrease in inorganic carbon dioxide levels.
What form of radiation is absorbed by Earth’s surface and atmosphere, and what form does this radiation take when it eventually moves off into space?
a) Earth absorbs long-wave infrared radiation and emits short-wave visible and ultraviolet radiation
b) Earth absorbs long-wave visible and ultraviolet radiation and emits short-wave infrared radiation
c) Earth absorbs short-wave infrared radiation and emits long-wave visible and ultraviolet radiation
d) Earth absorbs short-wave visible and ultraviolet radiation and emits long-wave infrared radiation
– Earth absorbs short-wave visible and ultraviolet radiation and emits long-wave infrared radiation
How do greenhouse gases and aerosols in the atmosphere affect Earth’s radiation budget?
a) BOth increase the trapping of infrared radiation emitted by Earth
b) Both decrease the trapping of infrared radiation emitted by Earth
c) Greenhouse gases increases the trapping of infrared radiation emitted by Earth, and aerosols decrease the amount of solar radiation that reaches Earth’s atmosphere.
d) Greenhouse gases increase the trapping of infrared radiation emitted by Earth and aerosols increase the amount of solar radiation that reaches Earth’s atmosphere
– Greenhouse gases increase the trapping of infrared radiations emitted by Earth, and aerosols decrease the amount of solar radiation that reaches Earth’s atmosphere.
Which of the following statements must be true about the atmosphere on Venus, Earth, and Mars?
a) The compositions of their atmospheres explain the surface temperatures observed for the planets
b) The compositions of their atmospheres have no influence on the surface temperatures observed for these planets
c) The total quantity of gases making up each planet’s atmosphere is likely to be important to explain their surface temperatures
d) The total quantity of gases making up each planet’s atmosphere likely has no influence on the surface temperatures observed for these planets
– The total quantity of gases making up each planet’s atmosphere is likely to be important to explain their surface temperatures
How would the carbon cycle change if the levels of carbon dioxide in Earth’s atmosphere were dramatically reduced?
a) The total amount of infrared radiation lost to space would be much smaller
b) The back radiation within the atmosphere would be much smaller
c) The amount of radiation leaving through atmospheric transmission would be much smaller
d) It wouldn’t change
– The back radiation within the atmosphere would be much smaller
Which of the following could be measured by satellite and correlated with NPP?
a) water content of biomass
b) ground cover by native plants
c) distribution of primary consumers
d) sunlight absorption by chlorophyll
e) carbon content of organismal biomass
– Sunlight absorption by chlorophyll
Rank from highest to lowest expected NPP
a) open ocean, freshwater swamp, estuary
b) open ocean, estuary, freshwater swamp
c) estuary, freshwater swamp, open ocean
d) freshwater swamp, open ocean, estuary
e) freshwater swamp, estuary, open ocean
– Freshwater swamp, estuary, open ocean
In a terrestrial ecosystem, what would be the likely effect of a 1 degree celsius increase in temperature on NPP?
a) NPP would increase
b) NPP would increse if the starting temperature was above 15, otherwise if would decrease
c) NPP would increase if the starting temperature was below 15, otherwise it would decrease
d) NPP would decrease
e) There would be no change in NPP
– NPP would increase
Near the coasts of continents, offshore winds push surface waters away from shore, causing cold bottom water to rise to the surface. The water in these upwelling zones…
a) is nutrient-poor
b) is too cool to support abundant life
c) is nutrient-rich
d) is too warm to support abundant life
e) contains only chemoautotrophs
– Is nutrient-rich
Carbon can be found in rocks, the atmosphere, and in living dead organisms. These alternative forms and locations of carbon are called.
a) cycles
b) compartments
c) niches
d) trophic interactions
e) upwelling zones
a) compartments
The biosphere is about …… km thick
a) 2 km
b) 20 km
c) 200 km
d) 2,000 km
e) 20,000 km
– 20 km
Which of the following would be considered an organic, inaccessible compartment?
a) minerals
b) atmosphere
c) autotrophs
d) coal
e) heterotrophs
– Coal
The pool of a substance in a compartment is 45 kg one month. In the previous month, the pool was 40 kg. What is the net flux into the compartment?
a) Negative 5 kg/month
b) Positive 5kg/month
c) 40 kg
d) 45 kg
e) 85 kg
– Positive 5 kg/month
Over land, precipitation is ….. evaporation, and over oceans, precipitation is ….. evaporation.
a) greater than; greater than
b) greater than; equal to
c) greater than; less than
d) less than; greater than
e) less than; equal to
– Greater than; less than
In the nitrogen cycle, decomposition…..
a) fixes N2 into ammonium
b) releases ammonium and other inorganic nitrogen compounds from organic compounds, thus returning nitrogen to the soil.
c) Denitrifies ammonium, thus returning N2 to the atmosphere
d) Converts ammonium to nitrate, which can then be absorbed by plants
e) Incorporates nitrogen into amino acids and organic compounds
– Releases ammonium and other inorganic nitrogen compounds form organic compounds, thus returning nitrogen to the soil
An aquatic ecologist is concerned with large phytoplankton blooms due to eutrophication in a lake. The ecologist should investigate ……… levels in the lake to monitor future eutrophication.
a) oxygen
b) carbon
c) hydrogen
d) nitrogen
e) sulfur
– Nitrogen
A bacterium converts nitrate into ammonium. This is an example of….
a) dissolution
b) denitrification
c) nitrogen fixation
d) eutrophication
e) the greenhouse effect
– Nitrogen fixation
The largest pool of carbon in the global carbon cycle occurs in…
a) fossil fuels and carbonate rocks
b) sand
c) ocean water
d) marine biota
e) vegetation
– Fossil fuels and carbonate rocks
Which activity or process can move carbon from an organic to an inorganic component?
a) Photosynthesis
b) Outgassing
c) Dissolution
d) Burning of coal
e) Eutrophication
– Burning of coal
If there were fewer greenhouse gas molecules in the atmosphere, the most likely effect would be a(n) …….. in temperature because fewer ….. photons would ……..
a) increase; visible light; escape
b) increase; infrared; escape
c) decrease; visible light; absorbed
d) decrease; infrared; be absorbed
e) decrease; infrared; escape
– Decrease; infrared; be absorbed
Hadley cell size increased due to the effects of greenhouse gas, the most likely effect would be a(n) …… in precipitation in …….
a) increase; an arid region at 30 degree North
b) increase; an arid region at 30 degree South
c) increase; the Antarctic
d) increase; the Arctic
e) decrease: a location near the equator
– Increase; the Antarctic
In the Netherlands, global climate change has affected oak trees, moths, and insect-eating birds. Which of the following is not one of the true effects of global climate change on these organisms?
a) Moth caterpillars have been hatching too early and starving
b) Oak leaves have been emerging too early to provide food for moth caterpillars
c) Great tits are not nesting earlier to take advantage of the timing-shift in moth hatching
d) Great tits are nesting after the peak in prey abundance, so their breeding success is lower
e) Moth caterpillar abundance is increasing because great tits are not feeding their young as much as normal
– Moth caterpillar abundance is increasing because great tits are not feeding their young as much as normal
Which one of the following is not a major limitation in a species’ ability to cope with climate change?
a) low dispersal capability
b) low genetic variation
c) restricted range at and near the tops of mountains
d) having a competitor that is struggling to keep up with climate change
e) having a resource that is struggling to keep up with climate change
– Having a competitor that is struggling to keep up with climate change
The primary goal of the Montreal Protocol was to…
a) address depletion of the ozone layer
b) reduce greenhouse gas emissions
c) protect endangered species
d) measure carbon dioxide levels
e) eliminate the economic benefits of exploiting species
– Address depletion of the ozone layer
The primary goal of the Kyoto Protocol was primarily to….
a) address depletion of the ozone layer
b) reduce greenhouse gas emissions
c) protect endangered species
d) accurately measure ozone levels
e) eliminate the economic benefits of exploiting species
– Reduce greenhouse gas emissions
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