Agricultural development set in gesture by celebrated American phytologist, Norman Borlaug in 1970 was based on the familial betterment of peculiarly productive workss. This world-wide agricultural development, subsequently to be called Green Revolution, helped assorted states to undertake nutrient security by bettering agricultural output with increased usage of high-yielding assortments of seeds, fertilisers, pesticides and irrigation methods. ( Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. , 1984 ) Increased pesticide and fertiliser application was associated with a corresponding addition in harvest outputs. ( Richardson, 1991 ; World Resources Institute. , 1992 ) Over a span of old ages, intensive fertilisation and inordinate sums of pesticides resulted in nitration ( in bend doing eutrophication of lakes and freshwater watercourse ) , wellness jeopardies for rural dwellers and environmental jobs. ( World Resources Institute. , 1992 ; Dinham, 1993,1989 )

The focal point of this reappraisal is to convey out assorted variables which need to be mooted from a Biofertilizer policy ordinance position in India. The following positions have been explained to supply a comprehensive dataset along with the policy mark countries for making a sustainable policy environment which will promote the usage of Biofertilizers:

Harmonizing to Biofertilizers and Organic Fertilizers Covered in Fertilizer ( Control ) Order, 1985 ( Amendment, March 2006 and farther amendment November 2009 ) ; biofertilizer means the merchandise incorporating bearer based ( solid or liquid ) life micro-organisms which are agriculturally utile in footings of N arrested development, phosphorus solubilization or alimentary mobilisation, to increase the productiveness of the dirt and/or harvest. ( Fertiliser Control Order, 1985. )

2. India ‘s production and ingestion capacity of Fertilizers

( a ) Global Context

Harmonizing to International Fertilizer Industry Association, any natural or manufactured stuff incorporating 5 % of one or more of the three primary nutrients- N ( N ) , phosphoric ( P ) , or K ( K ) – can be considered a fertiliser. ( International Fertilizer Industry Association Website, 2012. ) India is the 2nd largest manufacturer of Ammonia, Urea and NPK* ; 3rd largest in instance of DAP/MAP ; and 5th largest for Phosphoric acid in the universe. ( 11. International Fertilizer Development Center. 2009. Worldwide capacity listings by works, several fertiliser merchandises. September: Muscle Shoals, Alabama. * NPK are complex fertilisers that may incorporate N, phosphate, and potassium hydroxide, or a combination of the three. ) India is the 2nd largest consumer of N and phosphate in the universe. ( 12. FAOSTAT Online database, hypertext transfer protocol: //faostat.fao.org/ )

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( B ) Indian Context

3. Major fertiliser and pesticide control statute laws in India

Table: Major fertiliser control statute laws in India

Legislation

Regulatory Body

The Fertiliser ( Control ) Order, 1985

Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development

With respects to the policy frame work ; the major Indian statute laws are mentioned in Table 1. The FCO of 1985, lays down the specifications of biofertilizers with tolerance bound, method of analysis of biofertilizers, care and readying of civilization, and quality control apropos to Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Azospirillum, Phosphate solubilizing biofertilizer and Mycorrhizal biofertilizers. In pattern a big assortment of microbic inoculums are available including Algae, Azolla and Actinorrhizae besides the above mentioned beings.

Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, Government of India, New Delhi, vide their order Dated 24th March, 2006 included biofertilizers and organic fertilisers under subdivision 3 of the Essential Commodities Act, 1955 ( 10 of 1955 ) , in Fertilizer ( Control ) Order ( FCO ) , 1985. These regulations were farther amended in regard of pertinence, specifications and proving protocols vide Gazette presentment 3 November, 2009. The amendment brought Mycorrhiza under the horizon of the FCO. Schedule III, Part- A, consists of specifications refering to BFs in footings of base, feasible cell count, taint degree, pH, atom size in instance of bearer based stuffs, wet content and efficiency character ( for Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Azospirillum, Phosphate solubilizing biofertilizer ) , and to boot infectivity potency in instance of mycorrhiza.

Under Clause 3, the arrested development of monetary values is non applicable in instance of BFs and organic fertilisers. This leaves ample infinite for inclusion of a directing bespeaking a probationary pricing of the biofertilizers, as in the instance of chemical fertilisers. This will function as a competitory benchmark for take parting stakeholders involved in fabrication, merchandising and distribution of BFs.

Besides, the amendment contains ample clauses refering to the quality confidence steps clarifying the function of the review authorization, clip bound for analysis of the sample ( 7 yearss from its drawl ) and communicating of consequences. Non conformity to the laid down clauses may take to suspension, cancellation or debarment to the dealer/ maker.

Demand and Supply

From an economic position there is a demand to bridge the spread between the demand side and supply side by holding a holistic policy model.

The basic of import economic factors act uponing demand are income of the consumers ( husbandmans ) , monetary value of related goods, gustatory sensation form of consumer, outlooks and figure of purchasers ( Ref: Principles of Economicss by Gregory Mankiw ) .The demand of fertilisers is a constituent of the concluding demand of the harvest production ; therefore it is termed as “ derived demand ” . Debertin in 1986 has provided four factors act uponing the “ derived demand ” of fertiliser viz. , monetary value of harvest ( s ) , monetary value of fertiliser, monetary values of other inputs that substitute for or complement fertiliser and parametric quantities of production map that describe the proficient transmutation of inputs into an end product. These four factors have been used in analysis of the demand side in studies apropos to fertilisers as a whole. One such study is “ Factors Affecting Demand for Fertilizer in Sub-Saharan Africa ” by Agriculture & A ; Rural Development Department, World Bank in 2006. However, with biofertilizers in image there is demand for incorporation of other demand maps which will take into history the gustatory sensation forms of husbandmans and their outlooks. This sub constituent at the degree of the “ derived demand ” is needed because most of the use of biofertilizer is in position of advancing sustainability and cut downing chemical inputs in farming. This is apparent by the fact that biofertilizer as a manner for organic agriculture stems out of the consumer gustatory sensation for organic merchandises.

Similarly at the supply side, the cardinal variables act uponing demand are input monetary values, engineering, outlooks, and the figure of Sellerss ( Ref: Principles of Economicss by Gregory Mankiw ) .

flow 1 movie policy environment.bmp

Table: State-wise Production of Biofertilizer in India

Production of Biofertilizer in India ( in metric tons )

S No.

Name of the State

Year

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

2007-08

2008-09

2009-10

South Zone

1

A & A ; N Islands

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

Andhra Pradesh

205

2019.5

2246.4

4500.62

4515.8

168.136

1345.28

3

Daman & A ; Diu

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

4

Karnataka

1083.4

1135.9

612

341.64

2841.3

11921.1

3695.5

5

Kerala

54.85

213.25

8.34

261.75

814.45

1187

1936.45

6

Lakshadweep

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

7

Pondicherry

22.62

0

7.78

1827.78

471.29

561.792

452.79

8

Tamil Nadu

1845.5

1564.9

2207.6

1770.29

3467

4687.82

3732.59

A

Entire

3211.4

4933.6

5082.1

8702.08

12110

18525.8

11162.6

West Zone

9

Chhattisgarh

86.95

0

0

0

0

0

0

10

Gujarat

1034.9

943

1371.6

1250.63

1263.3

1149.7

1309.19

11

Goa

0

0

0

3.5

0

0

0

12

Madhya Pradesh

1300.5

1333.9

823.07

1204.76

1884.9

848.448

1587.68

13

Maharashtra

3035

3050

2099

2425.96

2486.4

1249.87

1861.33

14

Rajasthan

590.01

30.64

430.59

339.75

302.3

353.67

805.571

15

D & A ; N Haveli

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

A

Entire

6047.3

5357.6

4724.2

5224.6

5936.9

3601.68

5563.76

North Zone

16

Delhi

0

1.36

1.23

0

168.84

1165.1

1021.85

17

Chandigarh

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

18

Haryana

22.54

20.16

23.48

30.22

8.89

14.25

6.195

19

Himachal Pradesh

9.48

10.3

9.59

0

56.21

0

8.5

20

Jammu & A ; Kashmir

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

21

Punjab

2.95

0.37

2.27

2

1.7

1.14

301.232

22

Uttar Pradesh

115.98

130.27

486.3

212.78

250.06

885.517

962.642

23

Uttarakhand

0

0

0

0

0

48.23

32

A

Entire

150.95

162.46

522.87

245

485.7

2114.23

2332.42

East Zone

24

Bihar

0

15

41

36.9

20

0

0

25

Jharkhand

0

0

9

205.62

201.68

15

15

26

Orissa

59.31

32.62

65.97

280.54

331.94

405.03

289.867

27

West Bengal

226.53

74.296

194.6

1406.48

922.34

241.24

256.5

A

Entire

285.84

121.92

310.57

1929.54

1476

661.27

561.367

North East Zone

28

Arunachal Pradesh

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

29

Assam

88.5

25.2

107.6

8.465

70.901

129.355

121.04

30

Manipur

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

31

Meghalaya

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

32

Mizoram

1.14

0

0

1.68

3.58

1.996

2.5

33

Nagaland

8.03

0

17.03

10.65

13.98

16.0092

18.25

34

Sikkim

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

35

Tripura

5.8

0

0

23.25

14.27

14.68

278.402

A

Entire

103.47

25.2

124.63

44.05

102.73

162.04

420.19

A

Grand Total

9798.9

10601

10764

16145.3

20111

25065

20040.3

Beginning: DAC- National Centre of Organic Farming ( NCOF ) , Ghaziabad

Table: Year wise comparing of Biofertilizer production, Consumption, Production and Impot of Fertilizers ( NPK ) and the sum of subsidy on Fertilizers in India

Year

Biofertilizer Production ( in thousand metric tons )

Consumption of Fertilizers ( NPK ) ( lakh MT )

Production of Fertilizers ( NPK ) ( lakh MT )

Import of Fertilizers ( NPK ) ( lakh MT )

Sum of Subsidy ( Gross ) Disbursed ( Cash+Bonds ) on Fertilizers in India ( in thousand Crores )

Foodgrain Production ( In Million MT )

2002-03

A

160.94

144.74

16.74

11.01568

174.78

2003-04

9.79889

167.98

142.66

20.18

11.84782

213.19

2004-05

10.600686

183.99

154.05

27.5

16.1277

198.36

2005-06

10.76442

203.4

155.75

52.53

19.38964

208.6

2006-07

16.145263

216.51

160.95

60.8

28.01955

217.28

2007-08

20.11105

225.7

147.07

75.83

43.31916

230.78

2008-09

25.06503

249.09

143.34

101.51

99.49471

234.47

2009-10

20.040348

264.86

162.21

91.47

64.03229

218.2

2010-11

A

A

109.73

99.85

123.67741

A

Beginning: DAC- National Centre of Organic Farming ( NCOF ) , Ghaziabad ; Indian Fertilizer Scenario 2010, Department of Fertilizers, Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers, Government of India ; Lok Sabha Unstarred Question No. 2484, dated on 10.03.2011 ; & A ; Lok Sabha Unstarred Question No. 1810, dated on 01.12.2011

Figure: Year wise comparing of Biofertilizer production, Consumption, Production and Import of Fertilizers ( NPK ) and the sum of subsidy on Fertilizers in India

Table: Production of Biofertiliser in India ( 2001-02 to 2006-07 ) ( metric ton )

Production of Biofertiliser in India ( 2001-02 to 2006-07 ) ( metric ton )

Strain/ Year

2001-02

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

Azotobacter

1324.74

1399.06

1386.75

1805.92

1874.93

2037.75

Azospirillum

1275.5

1153.87

1159.26

950.97

1228.75

1283.7

Rhizobium

1841.54

1136.08

1822.94

1419.89

1548.53

1579.66

Acetobacter

167.85

210.03

158.25

213.33

316.22

208.79

Azolla

1.5

2.08

2.61

1.76

1.62

1.6

BGA

9.99

0.01

21.71

14.59

10.01

28.99

PSB

4502.22

3259.32

4005.18

5918

6075.51

6920.42

VAM

0.44

1.7

29.81

23.7

29.48

0.03

Entire

9123.78

5763.09

8586.51

10348.16

11085.05

12060.94

Beginning: Fertiliser Association of India

Table: Dispatchs of Biofertiliser in India ( 2001-02 to 2006-07 ) ( metric ton )

Dispatchs of Biofertiliser in India ( 2001-02 to 2006-07 ) ( metric ton )

Strain/ Year

2001-02

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

Azotobacter

1145.09

1136.24

1126.12

1375.25

1458.64

2005.33

Azospirillum

1269.54

1115.12

1156.54

942.25

1197.22

1284.76

Rhizobium

1847.16

1322.5

1745.75

1710.14

1871.06

1556.98

Acetobacter

167.86

208.05

155.59

213.46

314.49

208.42

Azolla

1.25

2.05

2.56

1.71

1.61

0.24

BGA

9.99

0.01

21.71

14.59

10.01

28.99

PSB

3741.52

2886.77

5574.56

5574.56

5963.31

6847.17

VAM

0.44

1.7

25.41

22.02

25.68

0.03

Entire

8182.85

6672.44

9808.24

9853.98

10842.02

11931.92

Beginning: Fertiliser Association of India

Decision

The Nutrient Based Subsidy Scheme ( introduced by Govt of India, in 2010 ) has given the autonomy, with respects to repairing of MRP ( Maximum Retail Price ) , to the makers and importers of chemical fertilisers depending on their cost economic sciences associated with production and import. This has led to a steep addition in the monetary values of fertilisers. The incumbent authorities is acute on cut downing the subsidies associated with urea, DAP, MOP and other chemical fertilisers. This has added enormous force per unit area on the outgo from the point of position of the husbandmans. However, this move may be supplemented by presenting relevant fiscal norms and subsidies for biofertilizers as an alternate use to the husbandmans. This will non merely run into their basic demand for the add-on of fertilisers to their harvests, but will besides advance environmentally sustainable measures/ inaugural shown by the authorities. Therefore, subsidies will rush up acceptance of application of biofertilizers and biopesticides, and will supply the initial drift to a sustainable agricultural motion.

There is a demand for limpid believing about incorporating the biofertilizer and biopesticide policy into state ‘s overall development scheme and ends. With accent on the development of fertiliser ‘s traditional function as a productiveness heightening agricultural input to an instrument holding wider deductions in footings of dirt birthrate refilling, dirt preservation, nutrient security, environmental sustainability, safety cyberspace and GDP ; it is a logical pick to supply agencies and right steps in footings of policy model to popularise biofertilizers and biopesticides.

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