The light reactions of photosynthesis supply the Calvin cycle with

A) light energy.

B) CO2and ATP.

C) H2O and NADPH.

D) ATP and NADPH.

E) sugar and O2.

D) ATP and NADPH
Which of the following sequences correctly represents the flow of electrons during photosynthesis?

A) NADPH O2 CO2

B) H2O NADPH Calvin cycle

C) NADPH chlorophyll Calvin cycle

D) H2O photosystem I photosystem II

E) NADPH electron transport chain O2

B) H2O NADPH Calvin cycle
In mechanism, photophosphorylation is most similar to

A) substrate-level phosphorylation in glycolysis.

B) oxidative phosphorylation in cellular respiration.

C) the Calvin cycle.

D) carbon fixation.

E) reduction of NADP+.

B) oxidative phosphorylation in cellular respiration
How is photosynthesis similar in C4and CAM plants?

A) In bothcases, only photosystem I is used.

B) Both types of plants make sugar without the Calvin cycle.

C) In both cases, rubisco is not used to fix carbon initially.

D) Both types of plants make most of their sugar in the dark.

E) In both cases, thylakoids are not involved in photosynthesis.

C) In both cases, rubisco is not used to fix carbon initially
Which process is most directly driven by light energy?

A) creation of a pH gradient by pumping protons across the thylakoid membrane

B) carbon fixation in the stroma

C) reduction of NADP+molecules

D)removal of electrons from chlorophyll molecules

E) ATP synthesis

D)removal of electrons from chlorophyll molecules
Which of the following does not occur during the Calvin cycle?

A) carbon fixation

B) oxidation of NADPH

C) release of oxygen

D) regeneration of the CO2acceptor

E) consumption of ATP

C) release of oxygen
Where does the Calvin cycle take place?

A) stroma of the chloroplast

B) thylakoid membrane

C) cytoplasm surrounding the chloroplast

D) chlorophyll molecule

E) outer membrane of the chloroplast

A) stroma of the chloroplast
In autotrophic bacteria, where are the enzymes located that can carry on organic synthesis?

A) chloroplast membranes

B) nuclear membranes

C) free in the cytosol

D) along the outer edge of the nucleoid

E) along the inner surface of the plasma membrane

E) along the inner surface of the plasma membrane
When oxygen is released as a result of photosynthesis, it is a by-product of which of the following?

A) reducing NADP+

B) splitting the water molecules

C) chemiosmosis

D) the electron transfer system of photosystem I

E) the electron transfer system of photosystem II

B) splitting the water molecules
In the thylakoid membranes, what is the main role of the antenna pigment molecules?

A) split water and release oxygen to the reaction-center chlorophyll

B) harvest photons and transfer light energy to the reaction-center chlorophyll

C) synthesize ATP from ADP and Pi

D) transfer electrons to ferredoxin and then NADPH

E) concentrate photons within the stroma

B) harvest photons and transfer light energy to the reaction-center chlorophyll
The reaction-center chlorophyll of photosystem I is known as P700 because

A) there are 700 chlorophyll molecules in the center.

B) this pigment is best at absorbing light with a wavelength of 700 nm.

C) there are 700 photosystem I components to each chloroplast.

D) it absorbs 700 photons per microsecond.

E) the plastoquinone reflects light with a wavelength of 700 nm.

B) this pigment is best at absorbing light with a wavelength of 700 nm
Which of the events listed below occur in the light reactions of photosynthesis?

A) NADP is produced.

B) NADPHis reduced to NADP+.

C) carbon dioxide is incorporated into PGA.

D) ATP is phosphorylated to yield ADP.

E) light is absorbed and funneled to reaction-center chlorophylla.

E) light is absorbed and funneled to reaction-center chlorophylla
Which statement describes the functioning of photosystem II?

A) Light energy excites electrons in the electron transport chain in a photosynthetic unit.

B) The excitation is passed along to a molecule of P700 chlorophyll in the photosynthetic unit.

C) The P680 chlorophyll donates a pair of protons to NADPH, which is thus converted to NADP+.

D) The electron vacancies in P680 are filled by electrons derived from water.

E) The splitting of water yields molecular carbon dioxide as a by-product.

D) The electron vacancies in P680 are filled by electrons derived from water.
What are the products of linear photophosphorylation?

A) heat and fluorescence

B) ATP and P700

C) ATP and NADPH

D) ADP and NADP

E) P700 and P680

C) ATP and NADPH
Which of the following are products of the light reactions of photosynthesis that are utilized in the Calvin cycle?

A) CO2and glucose

B) H2O and O2

C) ADP, Pi, and NADP+

D) electrons and H+

E) ATP and NADPH

E) ATP and NADPH
What are the products of the light reactions that are subsequently used by the Calvin cycle?

A) oxygen and carbon dioxide

B) carbon dioxide and RuBP

C) water and carbon

D) electrons and photons

E) ATP and NADPH

E) ATP and NADPH
Where does the Calvin cycle take place?

A) stroma of the chloroplast

B) thylakoid membrane

C) cytoplasm surrounding the chloroplast

D) chlorophyll molecule

E) outer membrane of the chloroplast

A) stroma of the chloroplast
As a research scientist, you measure the amount of ATP and NADPH consumed by the Calvin cycle in 1 hour. You find 30,000 molecules of ATP consumed, but only 20,000 molecules of NADPH. Where did the extra ATP molecules come from?

A) photosystem II

B) photosystem I

C) cyclic electron flow

D) linear electron flow

E) chlorophyll

C) cyclic electron flow
Assume a thylakoid is somehow punctured so that the interior of the thylakoid is no longer separated from the stroma. This damage will have the most direct effect on which of the following processes?

A) the splitting of water

B) the absorption of light energy by chlorophyll

C) the flow of electrons from photosystem II to photosystem I

D) the synthesis of ATP

E) the reduction of NADP+

D) the synthesis of ATP
What does the chemiosmotic process in chloroplasts involve?

A) establishment of a proton gradient

B) diffusion of electrons through the thylakoid membrane

C) reduction of water to produce ATP energy

D) movement of water by osmosis into the thylakoid space from the stroma

E) formation of glucose, using carbon dioxide, NADPH, and ATP

A) establishment of a proton gradient
In a plant cell, where are the ATP synthase complexes located?

A) thylakoid membrane

B) plasma membrane

C) inner mitochondrial membrane

D) A and C

E) A, B, and C

D) Both A and C
In mitochondria, chemiosmosis translocates protons from the matrix into the intermembrane space, whereas in chloroplasts, chemiosmosis translocates protons from

A) the stroma to the photosystem II.

B) the matrix to the stroma.

C) the stroma to the thylakoid space.

D) the intermembrane space to the matrix.

E) ATP synthase toNADP+ reductase.

C) the stroma to the thylakoid space.
Where are the molecules of the electron transport chain found in plant cells?

A) thylakoid membranes ofchloroplasts

B) stroma of chloroplasts

C) inner membrane of mitochondria

D) matrix of mitochondria

E) cytoplasm

A) thylakoid membranes ofchloroplasts
Synthesis of ATP by the chemiosmotic mechanism occurs during

A) photosynthesis.

B) respiration.

C) both photosynthesis and respiration.

D) neither photosynthesis nor respiration.

E) photorespiration.

C) both photosynthesis and respiration.
Reduction of oxygen which forms water occursduring

A) photosynthesis.

B) respiration.

C) both photosynthesis and respiration.

D) neither photosynthesis nor respiration.

E) photorespiration.

B) respiration.
Reduction of NADP+occurs during

A) photosynthesis.

B) respiration.

C) both photosynthesis and respiration.

D) neither photosynthesis nor respiration.

E) photorespiration.

A) photosynthesis.
The splitting of carbon dioxide to form oxygen gas and carbon compounds occurs during

A) photosynthesis.

B) respiration.

C) both photosynthesis and respiration.

D) neither photosynthesis nor respiration.

E) photorespiration.

D) neither photosynthesis nor respiration.
Generation of proton gradients across membranes occurs during

A) photosynthesis.

B) respiration.

C) both photosynthesis and respiration.

D) neither photosynthesis nor respiration.

E) photorespiration.

C) both photosynthesis and respiration.
In a protein complex for the light reaction (a reaction center), energy is transferred from pigment molecule to pigment molecule, to a special chlorophyll a molecule, and eventually to the primary electron acceptor. Why does this occur?

A) The action spectrum of that molecule is such that it is different from other molecules of chlorophyll.

B) The potential energy of the electron has to go back to the ground state.

C) The molecular environment lets it boost an electron to a higher energy level and also to transfer the electron to another molecule.

D) Each pigment molecule has to be able to act independentlyto excite electrons.

E) These chlorophyll a molecules are associated with higher concentrations of ATP.

C) The molecular environment lets it boost an electron to a higher energy level and also to transfer the electron to another molecule.
In thylakoids, protons travel through ATP synthase from the stroma to the thylakoid space. Therefore the catalytic “knobs” of ATP synthase would be located

A) on the side facing the thylakoid space.

B) on the ATP molecules themselves.

C) on the pigment molecules of PSI and PSII.

D) on the stroma side ofthe membrane.

E) built into the center of the thylkoid stack (granum).

D) on the stroma side ofthe membrane.
Which of the following statements best represents the relationships between the light reactions and the Calvin cycle?

A) The light reactions provide ATP and NADPH to the Calvin cycle, and the cycle returns ADP, Pi, and NADP+to the light reactions.

B) The light reactions provide ATP and NADPH to the carbon fixation step of the Calvin cycle, and the cycle provides water and electrons to the light reactions.

C) The light reactions supply the Calvin cycle with CO2to produce sugars, and the Calvin cycle supplies the light reactions with sugars to produce ATP.

D) The light reactions provide the Calvin cycle with oxygen for electron flow, and the Calvin cycle provides the light reactions with water to split.

E) There is no relationship between the light reactions and the Calvin cycle.

A) The light reactions provide ATP and NADPH to the Calvin cycle, and the cycle returns ADP, Pi, and NADP+to the light reactions.
Where dothe enzymatic reactions of the Calvin cycle take place?

A) stroma of the chloroplast

B) thylakoid membranes

C) outer membrane of the chloroplast

D) electron transport chain

E) thylakoid space

A) stroma of the chloroplast
What is the primary function of the Calvin cycle?

A) use ATP to release carbon dioxide

B) use NADPH to release carbon dioxide

C) split water and release oxygen

D) transport RuBP out of the chloroplast

E) synthesize simple sugars fromcarbon dioxide

E) synthesize simple sugars fromcarbon dioxide
Produces molecular oxygen (O2)

A) light reactions alone

B) the Calvin cycle alone

C) both the light reactions and the Calvin cycle

D) neither the light reactions nor the Calvin cycle

E) occurs in the chloroplast but is not part of photosynthesis

A) light reactions alone
Requires ATP

A) light reactions alone

B) the Calvin cycle alone

C) both the light reactions and the Calvin cycle

D) neither the light reactions nor the Calvin cycle

E) occurs in the chloroplast but is not part of photosynthesis

B) the Calvin cycle alone
Produces NADH

A) light reactions alone

B) the Calvin cycle alone

C) both the light reactions and the Calvin cycle

D) neither the light reactions nor the Calvin cycle

E) occurs in the chloroplast but is not part of photosynthesis

D) neither the light reactions nor the Calvin cycle
Produces NADPH

A) light reactions alone

B) the Calvin cycle alone

C) both the light reactions and the Calvin cycle

D) neither the light reactions nor the Calvin cycle

E) occurs in the chloroplast but is not part of photosynthesis

A) light reactions alone
Produces three-carbon sugars

A) light reactions alone

B) the Calvin cycle alone

C) boththe light reactions and the Calvin cycle

D) neither the light reactions nor the Calvin cycle

E) occurs in the chloroplast but is not part of photosynthesis

B) the Calvin cycle alone
Requires CO2

A) light reactions alone

B) the Calvin cycle alone

C) both the light reactions and the Calvin cycle

D) neither the light reactions nor the Calvin cycle

E) occurs in the chloroplast but is not part of photosynthesis

B) the Calvin cycle alone
Requires glucose

A) light reactions alone

B) the Calvin cycle alone

C) both the light reactions and the Calvin cycle

D) neither the light reactions nor the Calvin cycle

E) occurs in the chloroplast but is not part of photosynthesis

B) the Calvin cycle alone
The sugar that results from three “turns” of the Calvin cycle is glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate

(G3P). Which of the following is a consequence of this?

A) Formation of a moleculeof glucose would require 9 “turns.”

B) G3P more readily forms sucrose and other disaccharides than it does monosaccharides.

C) Some plants would not taste sweet to us.

D) The formation of starch in plants involves assembling many G3P molecules, with or without further rearrangements.

E) G3P is easier for a plant to store

D) The formation of starch in plants involves assembling many G3P molecules, with or without further rearrangements.
In the process of carbon fixation, RuBP attaches a CO2to produce a 6 carbon molecule, which is then split in two. After phosphorylation and reduction, what more needs to happen in the Calvin cycle?

A) addition of a pair of electrons from NADPH

B) inactivation of RuBP carboxylase enzyme

C) regeneration of ATP from ADP

D) regeneration of rubisco

E) a gain of NADPH

D) regeneration of rubisco
In metabolic processes of cell respiration and photosynthesis, prosthetic groups such as heme and iron-sulfur complexes are encountered. What do they do?

A) donate electrons

B) act as reducing agents

C) act as oxidizing agents

D) transport protons within the mitochondria and chloroplasts

E) both oxidize and reduce during electron transport

E) Both oxidize and reduce during electron transport
In an experiment studying photosynthesis performed during the day, you provide a plant with radioactive carbon (14C) dioxide as a metabolic tracer. The14C is incorporated first into oxaloacetate. The plant is best characterized as a

A) C4plant.

B) C3plant.

C) CAM plant.

D) heterotroph.

E) chemoautotroph.

A) C4plant.
Why are C4plants able to photosynthesize with no apparent photorespiration?

A) They do not participate in the Calvin cycle.

B) They use PEP carboxylase to initially fix CO2.

C) They are adapted to cold, wet climates.

D) They conserve water more efficiently.

E) They exclude oxygen from their tissues.

B) They use PEP carboxylase to initially fix CO2.
CAM plants keep stomata closed in daytime, thus reducing loss of water. They can do this because they

A) fix CO2into organic acids during the night.

B) fix CO2into sugars in the bundle-sheath cells.

C) fix CO2into pyruvatein the mesophyll cells.

D) use the enzyme phosphofructokinase, which outcompetes rubisco for CO2.

E) use photosystems I and II at night.

A) fix CO2into organic acids during the night.
Photorespiration lowers the efficiency of photosynthesis by preventing the formation of

A) carbon dioxide molecules.

B) 3-phosphoglycerate molecules

C) ATP molecules.

D) ribulose bisphosphate molecules.

E) RuBP carboxylase molecules.

B) 3-phosphoglycerate molecules
The alternative pathways of photosynthesis using the C4 or CAM systems are said to be compromises. Why?

A) Each one minimizes both water loss and rate of photosynthesis.

B) C4 compromises on water loss and CAM compromises on photorespiration.

C) Each one both minimizes photorespiration and optimizes the Calvin cycle.

D) CAM plants allow more water loss, while C4 plants allow less CO2into the plant.

E) C4 plants allow less water loss but Cam plants but allow more water loss.

C) Each one both minimizes photorespiration and optimizes the Calvin cycle.
If plant gene alterations cause the plants to be deficient in photorespiration, what would most probably occur?

A) Cells would carry on more photosynthesis.

B) Cells would carry on the Calvin cycle at a much slower rate.

C) Less ATP would be generated.

D) There would be more light-induced damage to the cells.

E) More sugars would be produced.

D) There would be more light-induced damage to the cells.
The light reactions of photosynthesis supply the Calvin cycle with

A) light energy.

B) CO2and ATP.

C) H2O and NADPH.

D) ATP and NADPH.

E) sugar and O2.

D) ATP ans NADPH
Which of the following sequences correctly represents the flow of electrons during photosynthesis?

A) NADPH O2 CO2

B) H2O NADPH Calvin cycle

C) NADPH chlorophyll Calvin cycle

D) H2O photosystem I photosystem II

E) NADPH electron transport chain O2

B) H2O NADPH Calvin cycle
In mechanism, photophosphorylation is most similar to

A) substrate-level phosphorylation in glycolysis.

B) oxidative phosphorylation in cellular respiration.

C) the Calvin cycle.

D) carbon fixation.

E) reduction of NADP+.

B) oxidative phosphorylation in cellular respiration.
How is photosynthesis similar in C4and CAM plants?

A) In bothcases, only photosystem I is used.

B) Both types of plants make sugar without the Calvin cycle.

C) In both cases, rubisco is not used to fix carbon initially.

D) Both types of plants make most of their sugar in the dark.

E) In both cases, thylakoids are not involved in photosynthesis.

C)In both cases, rubisco is not used to fix carbon initially.
Which process is most directly driven by light energy?

A) creation of a pH gradient by pumping protons across the thylakoid membrane

B) carbon fixation in the stroma

C) reduction of NADP+molecules

D)removal of electrons from chlorophyll molecules

E) ATP synthesis

D)removal of electrons from chlorophyll molecules
Which of the following does not occur during the Calvin cycle?

A) carbon fixation

B) oxidation of NADPH

C) release of oxygen

D) regeneration of the CO2acceptor

E) consumption of ATP

C) release of oxygen
Which of the following are products of the light reactions of photosynthesis that are utilized in the Calvin cycle?

A) CO2and glucose

B) H2O and O2

C) ADP, Pi, and NADP+

D) electrons and H+

E) ATP and NADPH

E) ATP and NADPH
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