mediastinum.
The region between the right and left pleural cavities is the
cardiac tamponade.
The accumulation of pericardial fluid due to inflammation or the accumulation of blood in the pericardial cavity can lead to
left atrium
The heart chamber that receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary veins.
right atrium
The heart chamber that receives blood from the superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and coronary sinus.
crista terminalis.
The internal C-shaped crest of the right atrium which indicates the openings for the Superior vena cava and Inferior vena cava is
chordae tendineae
Threadlike structures of the endocardium that prevent prolapse of the atrioventricular valves.
pulmonary semilunar valve
The valve responsible for preventing backflow of blood from the lungs into the heart.
mitral valve
Heart valve with two cusps.
papillary muscles
Contraction of these structures tightens the chordae tendineae, preventing valve prolapse.
atrioventricular bundle
Cells of the conducting system located between the AV node and bundle branches.
subendocardial conducting network (Purkinje fibers)
Large cardiac cells of the conducting system embedded in the ventricular walls between the endocardium and myocardium.
Vagus nerve
Parasympathetic impulses to the SA node are transmitted on this cranial nerve.
circumflex artery
Coronary artery that supplies the left atrium.
myocardial infarction
Death of heart musculature due to lack of oxygen.
congestive heart failure
Enlargement of the heart with progressive decline in pumping efficiency.
the parietal pericardium and the visceral pericardium.
The pericardial cavity lies between
It develops from the sinus venosus and lies in an atrium.
How did the sinoatrial (SA) node most likely get its name?
cardiac tamponade.
A penetrating stab wound to the heart wall that causes blood to leak into the pericardial cavity would result in
endocardium.
The inner endothelial layer that lines the heart is the
the pulmonary vein
Which of the following vessels does not carry oxygen-poor blood to the heart?
costal cartilage of the third rib where it attaches to the sternum.
The superior corner of the right atrium of the heart is located at the
earlike flaps on the surface of the atria.
The auricles are
papillary muscles
What structures anchor the chordae tendineae?
the right ventricle
Which structure develops from the embryological chamber called the bulbus cordis?
the pectinate muscles
Which of the following structures is not found in the left ventricle?
the pulmonary trunk
The right ventricle pumps blood into which vessel?
the superior vena cava
A drop of blood returning to the heart from the head region would enter the heart through which vessel?
endocardium.
The cusps of the valves of the heart are covered by
between the ventricles and the great arteries.
Semilunar valves are located
ventricular fibrillation.
A condition in which the ventricles are unable to pump blood efficiently because of rapid, random contraction of cardiac muscle fibers is called
superior right
At which corner point of the heart does one listen for the sound of the closing aortic semilunar valve?
They slow the heartbeat.
What is the effect of the parasympathetic fibers carried by the vagus nerve?
opening of the pulmonary veins.
The crista terminalis can be used to locate all of the following structures except the
the coronary sinus
Which vessel returns most of the venous blood from the heart to the right atrium?
forced from the ventricles into the aorta and pulmonary trunk.
During ventricular systole, blood is
left atrium.
Blood within the pulmonary veins returns to the
angina pectoris.
The term for pain caused by deficient blood delivery to the heart wall is
pulmonary circulation.
Stenosis of the mitral valve may cause blood to back up into the
coronary arteries.
Blood is carried to capillaries in the myocardium by way of the
the great cardiac veins
Which of the following veins does not deliver blood directly to the right atrium?
fasciae adherens.
The desmosome-like structures that attach adjacent cardiac muscle cells are called
right atrium.
Oxygen-poor blood returns to the heart and enters the
sinoatrial (SA) node
Which structure develops from the embryological chamber called the sinus venosus?
right ventricle.
The small cardiac vein is present on the
visceral layer of serous pericardium.
The epicardium is the same as the
anterior interventricular artery/Left anterior descending artery (LAD).
A specific coronary vessel that lies in the anterior interventricular sulcus is the
circumflex.
The artery that nourishes the walls of the left atrium is the
left ventricle.
The heart chamber with the thickest wall is the
right coronary artery.
A specific coronary vessel that lies in the coronary sulcus is the
left ventricle.
The heart chamber that pumps oxygenated blood around the systemic circuit is the
vibrations that result from the semilunar valves slamming shut.
If the beating heart makes a “lub-dup” sound, the “dup” sound is caused by
bulbus cordis
The base of the aorta derives from which of these “original” heart chambers in the embryo?
bundle branch
Destruction of which structure will result in electrical signals traveling to only one ventricle?
posterior descending artery.
Clinically, the posterior interventricular artery is referred to as the
myocardium.
Of the three layers of the heart wall, the layer that contains the cardiac muscle is the
are larger and have fewer myofilaments than other cardiac cells.
Cells of the subendocardial conducting network
fossa ovalis.
There is a foramen ovale in the skull and another one in the heart. The foramen ovale in the heart gives rise to the
occurs through a catheter inserted in the femoral artery.
Insertion of a stent to treat coronary artery disease (CAD)
a myocardial infarction.
Pericarditis can lead to all of the following except
chordae tendineae.
The “heartstrings” are
the ventricles are relaxing.
The semilunar valves are closed when
inferior part of the interatrial septum.
The atrioventricular node is located in the
left ventricle
Of the following heart chambers, which is most affected by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?
pump blood with greater pressure.
The left ventricular wall of the heart is thicker than the right ventricular wall so that it can
aorta.
During left ventricular systole, blood exits the heart to enter the
second intercostal space to the right of the sternum.
To listen for the aortic semilunar valve on the chest wall, one would place the stethoscope in the
The four heart chambers first develop during the third trimester.
Which of the following statements about fetal heart development is false?
when the ventricle is in systole.
The tricuspid valve is closed
thinning of the valve cusps
Which of the following is not an age-related change in the heart?
parietal layer of the serous pericardium
In the pericardial sac, the ________ lies directly deep to the fibrous pericardium.
great cardiac vein
This blood vessel is located in the anterior interventricular sulcus.
medulla oblongata of the brain stem.
The cardiac centers that control heart rate are located in the
True
Sounds of the aortic valve are heard in the second intercostal space at the right sternal margin.
False
The correct sequence of heart wall layers from superficial to deep is epicardium, endocardium, and myocardium.
True
Heart block interferes with the ability of the ventricles to receive the pacing impulses of the conducting system.
False
Papillary muscles are horizontal ridges in the walls of the atrium.
True
Formation of the interatrial and interventricular septa occurs during the second month of embryonic development.
True
Prolapse of the atrioventricular valves is prevented by the chordae tendineae.
True
Oxygen-rich blood returning from the lungs enters the left atrium through two right and two left pulmonary veins.
False
Contraction of the heart proceeds first on the right side of the heart and second on the left.
False
The middle cardiac vein lies alongside the anterior interventricular artery.
True
The electrical event that begins each heartbeat occurs at the sinoatrial (SA) node.
True
Contraction of the ventricles begins at the apex and proceeds superiorly.
False
Parasympathetic fibers innervate the SA node, AV node, and cardiac musculature.
False
The right and left coronary arteries arise from the descending aorta.
True
The fibrous skeleton of the heart forces the transmission of electrical signals from the atria to the ventricles via the atrioventricular bundle.
False
Atherosclerosis in the marginal artery may cause ischemia in the left side of the heart.
myocarditis
Inflammation of the heart’s myocardium is called ________.
parietal
The sequence of pericardial layers from superficial to deep is the fibrous, ________, and visceral pericardium.
coronary sinus
The right atrium receives blood from the superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and ________.
incompetent
A heart valve that fails to close properly is considered to be ________ or to exhibit insufficiency.
trabeculae carneae
Irregular ridges in the walls of the ventricles are called ________.
left ventricle
The walls of the ________ are thicker so as to push blood through the systemic circuit.
mitral, left atrioventricular, or bicuspid
The ________ valve prevents backflow of blood from the left ventricle to the left atrium.
chordae tendineae
The atrioventricular valves cannot be inverted because attachment of ________.
atrioventricular valves
The first heart sounds of “lub-dup” are produced by the closing of the right and left ________.
cardiac skeleton
The ________ of the heart prevents overdilation of the valve openings.
bundle branches or crura
The ________ are subdivisions of the atrioventricular bundle located within the upper half of the interventricular septum.
circumflex artery
The ________ artery supplies the left atrium and the posterior part of the left ventricle.
intercalated disks
Gap junctions and fasciae adherens are associated with ________ that join adjacent cardiac muscle cells.
angioplasty
The technique called ________ uses a balloon catheter to expand stenotic coronary arteries.
fibrillation
Uncoordinated contractions of the ventricle, known as ________, result from irregularities in conducting system behavior.
x

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