Which primary layer of the skin contains melanocytes?
A) dermis
B) hypodermis
C) epidermis
C) epidermis
Which layer of the integument contains the stratum basale?
A) dermis
B) hypodermis
C) epidermis
C) epidermis
Which tissue layer deep to the integument acts as a shock and thermal insulator?
A) dermis
B) hypodermis
C) epidermis
B) hypodermis
Which layer of the integument are toenails and fingernails derived from?
A) dermis
B) hypodermis
C) epidermis
C) epidermis
Which primary layer of the skin provides a pink undertone to Caucasian skin?
A) dermis
B) hypodermis
C) epidermis
A) dermis
Which layer of the skin invaginates downward to form sebum-producing glands?
A) dermis
B) hypodermis
C) epidermis
C) epidermis
When doctors make incisions on the body based on the lines of cleavage of the skin, these
cleavage lines are based on the arrangement of collagen fibers in which layer of the skin?
A) dermis
B) hypodermis
C) epidermis
A) dermis
Diffusion of chemicals from a transdermal patch must reach what layer of the skin to be
effective?
A) dermis
B) hypodermis
C) epidermis
A) dermis
Which primary layer of the skin contains lamellated granules that aid in waterproofing?
A) dermis
B) hypodermis
C) epidermis
C) epidermis
Identify the layer of the skin that contains most of the sensory receptors.
A) dermis
B) hypodermis
C) epidermis
A) dermis
Following their production in red bone marrow, dendritic cells circulate to what primary
layer of the skin?
A) dermis
B) hypodermis
C) epidermis
C) epidermis
Visible stretch marks on the skin surface are actually the result of microscopic tears in
collagen fibers in which layer?
A) dermis
B) hypodermis
C) epidermis
A) dermis
When a blister forms due to friction, liquid pools between the epidermis and what other layer
of the integument?
A) dermis
B) hypodermis
C) epidermis
A) dermis
If you were to have liposuction, you would have tissue removed from which layer?
A) dermis
B) hypodermis
C) epidermis
B) hypodermis
Which layer of the integument is found deep to the dermis?
A) dermis
B) hypodermis
C) epidermis
B) hypodermis
Is the human integumentary system best adapted for hot or cold climates?
A) cold, because we have many skin features that keep us from overheating
B) cold, because we have a thick hypodermis
C) warm, because sweating cools us in hot climates but we would die in cold climates without
clothing
D) warm, because sebaceous glands aid us in hot climates but evaporative cooling would kill us
in cold climates
C) warm, because sweating cools us in hot climates but we would die in cold climates without
clothing
The cells in the skin that store the most melanin granules are
A) dendritic cells.
B) tactile epithelial cells.
C) basal keratinocytes.
D) melanocytes.
C) basal keratinocytes.
Light-skinned people have less melanin in the superficial layers of their epidermis because
A) they are exposed to less UV radiation.
B) they have fewer melanocytes.
C) keratinocytes in their deeper layers rapidly digest melanin.
D) their melanocytes produce a pinkish color melanin instead of brown.
C) keratinocytes in their deeper layers rapidly digest melanin.
The type of sweat gland that begins to function at puberty and is involved in sexual signaling
is
A) apocrine.
B) eccrine.
C) sebaceous.
D) holocrine.
A) apocrine.
The proximal nail fold is also called the nail’s
A) matrix.
B) bed.
C) lunule.
D) eponychium.
D) eponychium.
The lunule, which represents the thickest part of the nail matrix is found at the
A) body of the nail.
B) eponychium.
C) proximal part of the nail bed.
D) dermis around the nail.
C) proximal part of the nail bed.
Based on the rule of nines, approximately what percent of the total body surface covers the
anterior and posterior torso?
A) 37%
B) 50%
C) 58%
D) 66%
A) 37%
Which layer of the epidermis contains keratohyalin granules and lamellated granules?
A) stratum basale
B) stratum corneum
C) stratum granulosum
D) stratum spinosum
C) stratum granulosum
The reticular layer of the dermis consists of ________ connective tissue.
A) reticular
B) stratified squamous
C) dense regular
D) dense irregular
D) dense irregular
In the thick skin of the palm, the layer of the epidermis directly deep to the stratum corneum
is the stratum ________.
A) granulosum.
B) basale.
C) lucidum.
D) spinosum.
C) lucidum.
The coarse hairs in the skin of the perineum and axillary regions are all ________ hairs.
A) pubic
B) apocrine
C) terminal
D) vellus
C) terminal
Lamellated granules
A) burst from sebaceous glands, releasing oils onto the skin.
B) contain glycolipids that are secreted from cells in the stratum granulosum.
C) help form keratin in fingernails.
D) smooth the cuticle of a hair shaft to prevent split ends.
B) contain glycolipids that are secreted from cells in the stratum granulosum.
Which is the most abundant and widespread type of sweat gland?
A) eccrine
B) apocrine
C) holocrine
D) endocrine
A) eccrine
The type of burn in which the epidermis and part of the dermis are damaged is ________
degree.
A) first
B) second
C) third
D) fourth
B) second
The thickness of skin is determined by the presence of the stratum lucidum and the thickness
of the
A) papillary layer of the dermis.
B) reticular layer of the dermis.
C) stratum basale.
D) stratum corneum.
D) stratum corneum.
The subpapillary plexus
A) nourishes the dermal papillae and epidermis.
B) nourishes the hypodermis and reticular layer of the dermis.
C) provides the sensation of fine touch.
D) provides the sensation of deep pressure.
A) nourishes the dermal papillae and epidermis.
The color of red or blonde hair is due to
A) carotene.
B) oxygenated hemoglobin.
C) porphyrins.
D) a different type of melanin.
D) a different type of melanin.
The most external layer of a hair shaft is the
A) medulla.
B) cuticle.
C) cortex.
D) epidermal root sheath.
B) cuticle.
Since both hair and skin contain keratin, the hair shaft is most comparable to what part of the
epidermis?
A) stratum corneum
B) melanocytes
C) basal lamina
D) stratum basale
A) stratum corneum
Pimples begin
A) as localized infections in the hypodermis.
B) as tiny cuts and nicks in the skin.
C) when bacteria enter sweat pores.
D) when sebaceous glands become blocked by sebum.
D) when sebaceous glands become blocked by sebum.
The black part of a blackhead is
A) oxidized sebum.
B) dirt.
C) a growing hair stub.
D) excreted carbon.
A) oxidized sebum.
The “cheesy” layer on the skin of a newborn is
A) lanugo.
B) baby sweat.
C) seborrhea.
D) vernix caseosa.
D) vernix caseosa.
An appendage or layer of the skin that does not develop from ectoderm is the
A) stratum spinosum.
B) hair follicle.
C) stratum corneum.
D) dermis.
D) dermis.
The type of skin cancer that is most common and has the lowest metastasis rate is
A) basal cell carcinoma.
B) squamous cell carcinoma.
C) malignant melanoma.
D) leukopenia.
A) basal cell carcinoma.
Any condition involving absence or loss of hair is called
A) psoriasis.
B) alopecia.
C) impetigo.
D) vitiligo.
B) alopecia.
Lanugo hair is replaced in a fetus by
A) nominal hair.
B) no hair.
C) vellus hair.
D) dermal hair.
C) vellus hair.
Since apocrine glands are almost inactive until puberty, they may function primarily in
A) cooling the body.
B) sexual signalling, under the influence of androgens.
C) keeping hair from falling out.
D) strengthening melanin in the skin.
B) sexual signalling, under the influence of androgens.
Soft keratin is present in the
A) epidermis.
B) hair cuticles.
C) dermis.
D) body of the nails.
A) epidermis.
The white half-moon visible under the proximal part of a fingernail is the
A) matrix.
B) bed.
C) lunule.
D) cuticle.
C) lunule.
Cleavage lines
A) are scars resulting from overstretching of the dermis.
B) attach the dermis to underlying bone and muscle.
C) form the pattern of epidermal ridges known as fingerprints.
D) run parallel to the orientation of collage bundles in the reticular layer.
D) run parallel to the orientation of collage bundles in the reticular layer.
Tattoos are permanent because
A) Langerhans cells do not recognize the pigments as foreign.
B) the melanocytes are altered to produce different colors.
C) the pigments are injected in the dermis.
D) the pigments are injected in the stratum basale, which continuously replaces the superficial
layers that are sloughed off.
C) the pigments are injected in the dermis.
In the ABCD rule of skin cancer, the letter B stands for
A) big.
B) blisters.
C) border.
D) baked skin.
C) border.
Which connective tissue layer is discussed in the chapter on the integumentary system but is
truly not a part of it?
A) dermal papilla
B) hair
C) nail
D) hypodermis
D) hypodermis
Which of the following is a sensory receptor?
A) keratinocyte
B) melanocyte
C) dendritic cell
D) Pacinian corpuscle
D) Pacinian corpuscle
Which of the following is not a current hypothesis proposed for the evolution of skin color?
A) preventing damage to DNA
B) preventing damage to elastin
C) protecting the level of folic acid
D) protecting the level of vitamin D
B) preventing damage to elastin
A(n) ________ responds to the movement of a single hair.
A) arrector pili muscle
B) hair matrix
C) hair papilla
D) root hair plexus
D) root hair plexus
A sebaceous gland is classified as a ________ gland.
A) compound tubular
B) simple tubular
C) simple alveolar
D) compound alveolar
C) simple alveolar
The epidermis is a keratinized ________ epithelium.
A) compound columnar
B) stratified squamous
C) simple squamous
D) simple areolar
B) stratified squamous
The only cell type found superficial to the stratum spinosum in the epidermis is the
A) keratinocyte.
B) melanocyte.
C) dendritic cell.
D) tactile epithelial cell.
A) keratinocyte.
In the ABCD rule for recognizing melanoma, the letter D stands for
A) depth.
B) diameter.
C) dark.
D) density.
B) diameter.
The appearance of wrinkles in skin with age is largely due to changes in the
A) collagen and elastic fibers in the dermis.
B) keratin of the epidermis.
C) carotene in the epidermis.
D) blood vessels in the dermis.
A) collagen and elastic fibers in the dermis.
Excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) can lead to skin cancer, but minimal UVR
exposure can lead to
A) porphyria.
B) vitiligo.
C) vitamin D deficiency.
D) ulcerative colitis.
C) vitamin D deficiency.
Damage to the hair ________ would prevent hair growth.
A) cortex
B) cuticle
C) matrix
D) medulla
C) matrix
“Goose bumps” on the skin are due to action of the
A) arrector pili muscles.
B) sweat glands.
C) sebaceous glands.
D) flexion creases.
A) arrector pili muscles.
Which statement is not part of the explanation for male pattern baldness?
A) Cells of the hair matrix cease mitosis.
B) Hair growth cycles shorten.
C) Hair shafts may not reach the surface.
D) Terminal hairs are replaced by vellus hairs.
A) Cells of the hair matrix cease mitosis.
Holocrine secretion
A) differentiates the products of ceruminous and mammary glands from other sweat glands.
B) involves the bursting of the glandular epithelial cell.
C) produces a lipid-rich product that can be metabolized by bacteria.
D) results from the exocytosis of protein-rich vesicles.
B) involves the bursting of the glandular epithelial cell.
The type of skin cancer that arises from keratinocytes of the stratum spinosum is
A) basal cell carcinoma.
B) malignant melanoma.
C) squamous cell carcinoma.
D) psoriasis.
C) squamous cell carcinoma.
The integumentary organs that are derived from mesoderm and function in thermoregulation
are
A) nails.
B) hair.
C) sebaceous glands.
D) arrector pili muscles.
D) arrector pili muscles.
A partial-thickness burn involves
A) the epidermis.
B) the epidermis and papillary layer of the dermis.
C) the epidermis and the entire dermis.
D) the epidermis, dermis, and any portion of the hypodermis.
B) the epidermis and papillary layer of the dermis.
As a person balds, terminal hair is replaced by vellus.
True
Skin consists of two distinct tissue layers: the epidermis and dermis.
True
Keratinocytes begin to die in the stratum granulosum.
False
Chemotherapy causes hair loss because these drugs specifically target rapidly dividing cells in
the hypodermis.
False
Nutrients enter a hair follicle through the dermal papilla.
True
The letter A in the ABCD rule for melanoma detection stands for asymmetry.
True
Skin cancers are the most common types of cancer in the United States, and the most
important risk factor is overexposure to ultraviolet radiation.
True
An immediate concern with a burn patient is loss of fluids, so fluids must be administered
immediately.
True
First-degree burns are the most severe type of burn.
False
If you are truly “smelly” after a workout that causes you to work up a sweat, the smell is due
to secretions from your eccrine glands.
False
Sebaceous glands secrete oil onto the surface of the epidermis via the hair follicle
True
The contraction of skeletal muscle cells of the arrector pili muscles, attached to hair follicles,
causes “goose bumps.”
False
Consumer goods made of leather are produced from the subcutaneous adipose layer of
animals.
False
By the time keratinocytes reach the stratum corneum, they are dead and filled with collagen.
False
Ceruminous glands of the ear canal are modified sebaceous glands.
False
In thin skin, the epidermis is comprised of how many layers?
four
In the skin, the rich capillary beds and the ________ glands aid in thermoregulation.
sweat or sudoriferous
Most ________ glands open into hair follicles.
sebaceous
The stratum ________ lies between the stratum granulosum and the stratum corneum of thick
skin.
lucidum
This stratum of the epidermis contains the greatest number of cellular layers in both thick and
thin skin.
stratum corneum
The epidermal stem cells that give rise to hair matrix cells are located in a bulge in the
________, near the insertion of the arrector pili muscle.
external root sheath
Deodorants mask the odor produced by the bacteria that live off the secretions of ________
glands.
apocrine
The vitamin produced by the skin is vitamin ________.
D
Keratinocytes produce keratin, as well as various enzymes and ________.
antimicrobial compounds
The dendritic cells reside in the ________.
stratum spinosum
Melanin functions to “shade” keratinocyte DNA molecules from harmful ________.
UV radiation
Mitosis primarily occurs in a layer of the epidermis, the stratum ________.
basale
Found in the stratum spinosum, dendritic cells are cells of the ________ system.
immune
This layer is found only in thick skin, and appears as thin translucent band when viewed with
a light microscope is the ________.
stratum lucidum
The process that causes premature damage to skin with prolonged exposure to ultraviolet
radiation is called ________.
photoaging
List the layers of the epidermis found in thick skin from the deepest layer to the most
superficial layer, and provide a few descriptive terms that characterize each layer.
Stratum basale: single layer of cells, rapid mitosis. Stratum spinosum: keratinocytes
have spiny extensions seen in prepared slides. Stratum granulosum: cells have keratohyalin and
lamellated granules. Stratum lucidum: cells are thin, dead keratinocytes. Stratum corneum: outer
layer of dead, thin cells filled with keratin, surrounded by lipids.
Name the location and function of these cells: keratinocytes, tactile epithelial cells,
melanocytes, and dendritic cells.
Keratinocytes are found in all layers of the epidermis; they accumulate keratin and
produce antimicrobial compounds and enzymes that protect the epidermis. Tactile epithelial cells
are found in the stratum basale; they serve as touch receptors. Melanocytes are found in the
stratum basale; they produce the pigment melanin, which protects the skin from UV radiation of
the sun. Dendritic cells are found in the stratum spinosum; they function in immunity via
receptor-mediated endocytosis.
Describe the effects of postpubescent aging on sebaceous glands, melanocytes, and the
structure of the dermis.
As an individual ages, sebaceous glands decrease their activity. The resulting decline in
sebum causes itchy, dry skin. Exposure to UV light causes accumulations of melanin to produce
freckles and liver spots. It may also cause various forms of skin cancer. These damaging rays
also alter collagen and elastin fibers, causing the skin to become wrinkled, loose, and inelastic.
Describe the vascularization of the skin.
The dermis contains two vascular plexi. The dermal plexus is located between the
hypodermis and the dermis, nourishing the hypodermis and the deeper portions of the dermis.
The subpapillary plexus is located just deep to the dermal papillae and supplies the upper dermal
layer. It also provides nourishment to cells of the deeper layers of the epidermis by diffusion.
Describe the location, characteristics, and function of the hypodermis.
The hypodermis, or superficial fascia, is just deep to the dermal layer of the skin. It is
composed primarily of adipose tissue, covered by a more superficial areolar connective tissue. Its
functions include thermal and shock insulation, nutrient storage, and anchors the skin to
underlying tissues.
Which letter indicates projections from the dermis that reduce blister formation?
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E
E) E
Which letter indicates a specialized sensory receptor that responds to deep pressure?
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E
D) D
Which letter indicates the integument layer that corresponds to leather hides from an animal?
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E
B) B
Which letter indicates the integument layer that has no vascularization?
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E
A) A
Which letter indicates the integument layer composed of keratinized stratified squamous cells?
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E
A) A
Which letter indicates cells that produce melanin in the hair root?
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E
D) D
Which letter indicates the portion of a hair that projects above the skin surface?
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E
A) A
Which letter indicates the innermost portion of hair that is comprised of large epithelial cells
and air spaces?
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E
C) C
Which letter indicates the portion of the hair root that contains a single capillary cluster?
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E
E) E
Which letter indicates a layer of cells that are derived from the epidermis?
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E
B) B
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