Breathing rate – counting the number of breaths in a min. Muscle cells respire faster. Meaning- they need more oxygen and glucose and release more carbon dioxide. A faster breathing rate means that oxygen can be taken into the body at a faster rate and carbon dioxide can be released faster. Cardiac output = stroke volume x heart rate Effects of exercise: Ventilation – breathing Respire – release of energy from food/chemicals Anaerobic respiration is release of glucose without using oxygen. This produces lactic acid. Glucose = lactic acid + energy

Advantage: useful for muscles because it can release energy to allow muscles to contract when the heart/lungs can’t deliver (02) and glucose fast enough for aerobic respiration. Disadvantages: Lactic acid is not removed from the body. It builds up in the body and the blood. (2) – Anaerobic respiration releases less energy than aerobic respiration. Lactic acid: poisonous causes cramp causes oxygen debt EPOCH = excess post oxygen consumption means if someone exercises hard you will see their breathing and heart rate will take time to return to a normal resting rate.

Photosynthesis is the process where plants use to make glucose. In this process light energy used to combine with carbon dioxide and water . Word equation= carbon dioxide + water = glucose + oxygen SO.. Where does photosynthesis occur? Is a complex series of reactions they are catalysts by enzymes in organelles called chloroplast light energy is the substance in the process and is absorbed by a green substance in the chloroplasts green substance is called chlorophyll Chlorophyll converts light energy into chemical energy.

What do pants use glucose for? Respiration (in the mitochondria) = releases energy stored as carbohydrates e. G. Starch Cross section of a leaf: Chlorophyll in Chloroplasts captures light energy needed in photosynthesis. The stomata in the leaf surface allows ICC to diffuse into the leaf. Also allows 02 and H2O produced by photosynthesis to diffuse out of the leaf. Limiting factors….. Limits the growth or development an organism,population or process 4 limiting factors involved in photosynthesis light temperature carbon dioxide water

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Measure the effect of : 1) temperature = using warm or cold baths 2) carbon dioxide = concentration by adding deterrent amounts tot s odium carbonate to the water 3) light intensity = using bright or dim lights Water transport hydrogen Water and substances dissolved in the water transported in to the plant around the vein. Vein contains tissues called xylem and phloem. Plant: glucose is converted into sucrose which is transported in the phloem to the rest of the plant. Water and dissolved minerals travel in the xylem to the rest of the plant. Water and dissolved minerals enter the plants through the roots.

Transpiration: evaporation of water vapor from the leaves draws water out from the leaf cells and xylem draws water up the xylem to from the roots causes water to enter the roots by osmosis Types of transport: active transport diffusion osmosis is the special case of diffusion Meaning= is the net movement of the Osmosis. Water molecules from a region to a higher concentration to a lower concentration through a partially permeable membrane. Only water molecules Diffusion is where gas or liquid molecules spread out. This permeable membrane lets only particular molecules to pass through.

Small molecules can pass through not bigger ones. The sugar (glucose/sucrose) can not pass through this solution WHY? Because these molecules are too big to pass through the semi permeable membrane Directions of the water movement depends on the differences in the water concentration between the inside and outside cell Turgid = having outdoor enlarged and swollen with water (inside) Flaccid = a plant cell hat is limp through a reduction tot pressure inside the cell (water moves out) Polymerase= a plant that has too much water causing the cell membrane to be pulled away from the inside of the cell wall. Lots of water moving out) Biodiversity is the total number of different species in an ecosystem or habitat is a measure of biodiversity. Keywords – 1) Distribution where organisms are found 2) Population size the number of individuals in an area 3) Habitat where organisms live 4) Sampling investigating a small part of the area 5) Quadrant a sample square to analyses species.


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