Aim: To construct a field graph to study the local ecosystem at the Inamorata estuary involving biotic factors, transects and abundance. Method: Measuring biotic factors 1 . Measure the elevation along the transect line in centimeters using an inclinometer in each quadrant. 2. Measure the soil temperature in degrees using a thermometer by placing it in the ground in the quadrant. 3. Measure the air temperature in degrees using a thermometer by holding it up in the air Just above the ground in the quadrant. 4. Measure the wind speed in knots using an anemometer held up in the air in the quadrant. 5.
Measure the soil moisture in the quadrant using a soil moisture probe. Soil moisture is represented in a percentage with 100% being the maximum amount of moisture. 6. Measure the amount of sunlight in the quadrant using a lug meter. Calculating the abundance of animals across the mangroves and salt marsh 1 . Place a quadrant somewhere in the shoreward edge of the intestinal zone 2. Align the quadrant with a compass so that one side faces north and the other faces south. 3. Calculate the area of the quadrant in meters squared. 4. Calculate the abundance by first, finding the area of the quadrant in mm.
Describe the vegetation along the transect. Mention dominant species in each zone, patterns of distribution and comments on where zones merge. In the first four quadrant, the salt-water couch is the most dominant species. It appears in quadrant three and four. The grey mangrove and the river mangrove are also in this zone. All these species are found in intestinal zones so this zone is the intestinal zone. In quadrant 5-8, the river mangrove is found in all quadrant and is the dominant species in this zone. Campfire was also found in quadrant 6 and 7, and salt-water couch in drat 8.
In quadrant 9-12, the river mangrove is the most dominant but only appears in quadrant 11 and 12. There is no other species found other than the river mangrove in quadrant 9-12 suggesting a merge of zones in the next few quadrant. In the last four quadrant, the swamp she-oak is found in all four quadrant and is the most dominant species in this zone. A large amount of salt-water couch is also evident and also some sibilate and grey mangrove. She-oak is found above high tide and sibilate is also found at the high tide of the intestinal zone suggesting that the one has merged to above high tide. 2.
Describe relationships between vegetation and the distribution of animals. There was only one Biennium in the whole transect and it was found in the eighth quadrant. Quadrant 8 also had 20% river mangrove and 40% salt-water couch. 3. Describe changes in biotic factors along the transect. Identify possible relationships between biotic gradients and vegetation conation. The elevation between quadrant 12 and 13 rises greatly because of the zone change to above high tide. Because of this change in elevation the swamp she-oak is found in the last four drafts of the transect because she-oaks are found in zones above high tide.
In quadrant 6-8, the elevation decreases and the river mangroves population is increased. This may be caused because the mangroves may have access to water at the lower elevation. Also, the sunlight decreased dramatically from quadrant 6 to 7 and in quadrant 7, the river mangrove covers 75% of the quadrant. 4. To what extent can the pattern in vegetation be explained by past and present human activity and related biotic factors. The vegetation has experienced some terrible consequences as a result tot human activity; tort example, the track made by people stepping on the vegetation.
With people continually walking on the soil and vegetation, the vegetation will not be able to continue growing or to sustain a healthy life. For the plants relying on water, the pollution of the estuary caused by boats and rubbish can affect the growth and survival of them greatly. Also the bridge built through the vegetation, killing most of it has had a massive impact on the survival of the vegetation. 5. Discuss the validity of your results that describe the conation from mangroves to saltwater. The results for the conation of mangroves are valid for many reasons.
Firstly, the elevation from quadrant 12 to 13 shows the zone shift from intestinal to above high tide, and from quadrant 13 onwards, the swamp she-oak is most dominant, which is even more evidence to show that it is in fact above high tide. There are also no mangroves past quadrant 13, as they reside in the intestinal zone. The mangroves are all over between quadrant 1-12, and with 100% soil moisture in all of those quadrant, that that is in fact the intestinal zone. The soil moisture varies in the last 4 quadrant since it is no longer in the intestinal zone.