Climate change: temp, sea levels, precipitation 2. Non climate threats such as habitat loss, habitat fragmentation, and invasive species and air and water pollution Fragmentation: often due to man (dams, roads, and general development) Elements of biodiversity: Species, ecosystems & landscapes Mammals from bats to bears Bats got the white nose fungus which caused the bats to die and the insect population flourished because the bats main Job was to eat the insects. Birds Several bird species are declining. Some of the most endangered birds live in MA

Reptiles Most vulnerable in MA. Move annually through open roads and fragmentation. Reptiles require an UN-fragmented environment. Amphibians and fish Four stages: Egg Larva Juvenile Adult Long term protection of these are of high importance. **alienator species= amphibians** (more likely to be harmed by pollution because their skin has a weak barrier) What would be one thing to help prevent the fragmentation offish? Get rid of dams and waterways or modify them…. Making fish ladders Invertebrates Major threats: habitat destruction, foreign species moving in. 54% are currently unprotected.

Plants: 1770 native species. 14& considered vulnerable to extirpation (being pulled from the roots) or local extinction and are protected by the MESA Certain plants can’t reproduce without fire Coastal habitats: 1500 miles of coastline more than any EN state besides ME. Mammals trot bats to bears extinction and are protected by the MESA Certain plants can’t reproduce without fire Climate change: temp, sea levels, precipitation Most vulnerable in MA Move annually through open roads and transmigration transmigration tot dish Get rid tot dams and waterways or modify them…. Making TLS

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