According to McMillan et al (2013), the addictive substance in tobacco smoke that makes smokers addicts is nicotine. Addicted smokers will always feel inactive until they smoke enough nicotine. Along with nicotine, smokers also inhale over 7,000 chemicals in cigarette smoke. Most of these chemicals come from burning tobacco leaf. A number of of these compounds are chemically active and brings about damaging changes in the body. Tobacco smoke contains about 60 chemicals causing cancer.
Smoking causes harm to almost every body organ hence causing most diseases and generally poor health. The most damaging components of tobacco smoke are: -ear It is a term that refers to a mixture of particles which are suspended in tobacco smoke. These particles contain chemicals, as well as cancer-causing substances. Tar is brown and sticky posing stains on fingernails, teeth, and lung tissue. Carbon monoxide This gas is deadly if consumed in large amount because it replaces oxygen in the red blood cell. Red blood cell contains hemoglobin that transports oxygen molecules room the lungs to other parts of the body.
On the other hand, hemoglobin has higher affinity to carbon monoxide as compared to oxygen. This shows that less oxygen reaches the brain, muscles, heart and other organs Hydrogen cyanide The lungs have tiny hair that help in moving foreign substances out. Hydrogen cyanide prevents this lung clearance system from functioning properly hence poisonous chemicals in tobacco smoke can pile up inside the lungs. Other chemicals in cigarette smoke that harms the lungs include nitrous oxide, hydrocarbons, organic acids, oxidized agents and phenols.
Free radicals These are extremely reactive chemicals that can destroy the blood vessels and the heart muscles. They react with the cholesterol therefore leading to the build-up of fatty material on the walls of the artery. Their effects lead to stroke, heart disease and blood vessel disease. Metals Tobacco smoke is composed of dangerous metals which includes; arsenic, lead and cadmium. Radioactive compounds Most of the radioactive compounds contained in tobacco are known to be carcinogenic. Smoking is harmful to your health from the very first cigarette.
This is cause some of the chemicals contained in the smoke have an instant effect on the body. Carbon monoxide from the smoke is taken into the blood instead of oxygen. This leads to the body cells getting less oxygen for respiration process and as a result, being an able to breathe when having some exercise. This is mainly damaging during pregnancy as it will starve the developing baby from oxygen. A healthy respiratory system is cleansed continuously. The respiratory tubule produced mucus that traps disease-causing organisms and dirt which cilia moves toward the mouth, here it is eliminated.
Smoking really damages this housekeeping. With the very first smoking, slows the beating of the cilia. After some time, the cilia become paralyze and then disappears. The loss of cilia leads coughing. The cilia are not in a position to remove mucus, so the person has to cough it up (Starr el al, 2009). Cigarette smoke contains different chemicals and is acidic. Due to this it can cause irritation of the bronchi and bronchioles lining. The lining becomes swollen and inflamed and can also become infected. Each time a person smokes another cigarette the irritation increases.