Oxidation: hydrogen removed in 4 of the reactions, & accepted by AND+ in 3 of the reactions / by FAD in the 4th reaction. Substrate-level phosphorescently: TAP is produced in 1 of the reactions. Electron transport chain ETC is a series of electron carriers located in inner membrane of mitochondria. NADIA supplies 2 electrons to first carrier in the chain (electrons come from oxidation reactions in earlier stages of cell respiration).

The electrons pass along ETC and give up energy each time they pass from one carrier to the next. At 3 points along the chain enough energy is given up for TAP to be made by TAP syntheses oxidative phosphorescently, since TAP production relies on energy released by oxidation. FADDY also feeds electrons into ETC but later than NADIA. Only at 2 points is sufficient energy released for TAP production by electrons from FADDY. Role of oxygen (terminal electron acceptor) At the end of ETC, electrons are given to oxygen, which accepts hydrogen at the same time to form water.

This happens on the surface of the inner membrane of the matrix, and is the ONLY stage at which oxygen is used in cell respiration. If oxygen is unavailable, electron flow along ETC stops and NADIA + H+ cannot be reconverted to AND+, which runs out in the mitochondria, hence link reaction and Krebs cycle cannot continue. Glycoside can continue because conversion of private into lactate / ethanol + carbon dioxide produces as much AND+ as is used in glycoside. Aerobic cell respiration = 30 TAP per glucose; glycoside = 2 TAP per glucose.

Oxygen greatly increases TAP yield. 8. 1. 5 Explain oxidative phosphorescently in terms of commissions. Energy released (as electrons pass along ETC) is used to pump protons (H+) across inner mitochondrial membrane into space between membranes. * A concentration gradient is formed. * TAP syntheses transports protons back across membrane down the concentration radiant. * As protons pass across membrane, they release energy which is used by TAP syntheses to produce TAP. Coupling of TAP synthesis to electron transport via a concentration gradient of protons: commissions. 8. 1. 6 Explain the relationship between the structure of the mitochondria and its function. * Cristal folds: increase surface area for electron transfer / oxidative phosphorescently * Small space between inner and outer membranes: high proton concentration can be easily formed in commissions * Matrix: fluid containing enzymes for link reaction and Krebs cycle

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