What is another name for a condensation reaction?
dehydration
What is the name of the process during which a bond between two monomers is broken?
hydrolysis
Match the monomers with their polymers.
Nucleic acid polymers are made up of nucleotide monomers.
Carbohydrate polymers are made up of simple sugar monomers
Protein polymers are made up of amino acid monomers.
Select the statement that is incorrect
All carbohydrates have the general formula Cn(H2O)n.
Match the words in the left-hand column with the appropriate blank in the sentences in the right-hand column.
A carbohydrate that yields many monosaccharides when hydrolyzed is a polysaccharide .
Lactose, the sugar in milk, is a disaccharide, because it can be split into two monosaccharides
A simple sugar is composed of equal parts carbon and water, which gave rise to the general name of any sugar as a carbohydrate .
A monosaccharide cannot be hydrolyzed any further.
Glycogen is _____.
a polysaccharide found in animals
glucose + glucose —> _____ by _____.
maltose + water … dehydration synthesis
Which of these is a source of lactose?
milk
Which of these is a polysaccharide?
cellulose
_____ is the most abundant organic compound on Earth.
Cellulose
Which of these is NOT a lipid?
RNA
This figure is an example of a(n) _____.
saturated fat
Which of these is a phospholipid?
Which of these is rich in unsaturated fats?
olive oil
A function of cholesterol that does not harm health is its role _____.
as a component of animal cell membranes
How many fatty acids are in a phospholipid?
2
What functional feature(s) does the phosphate group contribute to the structure of a phospholipid?
Select all that apply.
negative charge to interact with water
place to attach another small charged molecule
What holds phospholipids together in a bilayer formation?
hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions with water
Which molecule is less soluble in water–a fat or a phospholipid? Why?
A fat molecule is less soluble in water because it has three non-polar fatty acids and no polar or charged head like a phospholipid has.
Which of these images shows the correct orientation of phospholipids in a biological membrane?
Classifying amino acids I
Classify these amino acids as acidic, basic, neutral polar, or neutral nonpolar.
basic – Arginine
neutral polar – Asparagine & Glutamine
neutral nonpolar – Alanine
Classifying amino acids II
Classify these amino acids as acidic, basic, neutral polar, or neutral nonpolar.
basic – Lysine
neutral polar – Serine
neutral nonpolar – Proline, Methionine, & Phenylalanine
Classifying amino acids III
Classify these amino acids as acidic, basic, neutral polar, or neutral nonpolar.
acidic – Glutamic Acid
neutral polar – Tyrosine & Threonine
neutral nonpolar – Valine & Tryptophan
Proteins are polymers–long chains of many similar building blocks linked by covalent bonds. There are 20 building blocks, or monomers, that are used to build proteins. These monomers share a common structure.
Drag the labels to the appropriate blanks on the diagram.
Drag the terms on the left to the appropriate blanks on the right to complete the sentences. Not all terms will be used.
When two amino acid monomers are positioned so that the carboxyl group of one is adjacent to the amino group of the other, they can be joined through a dehydration reaction.
This reaction forms a(n) peptide bond.
Proteins can be visualized in many ways, each of which highlights a specific aspect of the protein.
Drag the terms on the left to the appropriate blanks on the right to complete the sentences.
Proteins perform a variety of functions in living organisms. The protein lysozyme (shown in the figure) is found in tears and saliva where it prevents infection by catalyzing the destruction of specific molecules on the surface of many kinds of bacteria.
To which functional class of proteins does lysozyme belong?
Enzymatic protein
Which characteristics best describe the side chains in the part of the protein in contact with the phospholipid tails of the membrane?
Non-polar; hydrophobic
As a researcher in a protein lab, you analyze two different proteins for their shape and the amino acids they contain. Your results show that the two proteins have exactly the same numbers and types of amino acids, but they have different shapes.
What is the best explanation for these results?
Each protein has a unique linear sequence of amino acids.
Complete the following vocabulary exercise relating to the level of structure in proteins.
Match the words in the left-hand column with the appropriate blank in the sentences in the right-hand column.
Sort the images according to the level of structure in the proteins shown.
Sort the items into the appropriate bin.
Components of nucleotides
Sort these nucleotide building blocks by their name or classification.
Comparing RNA and DNA
Sort the parts of a nucleic acid according to whether each occurs exclusively in DNA, exclusively in RNA, or in both types of nucleic acid.
Identifying a DNA nucleotide
Identify three possible components of a DNA nucleotide.
deoxyribose, phosphate group, thymine
Scan along the standard sequences (O. kisutch, O. keta, and S. salar), base by base, identifying any bases that do not match the sequence from your fish sample.
How many nucleotide bases differ between your sample (labeled as O. kisutch) and the standard sequence for O. kisutch?
3
What percentage of the bases in the standard sequence for O. kisutch are identical to your sample? This value is called the “percent identity.”
85%
Now do the same analysis for the other two standards.
Drag the values to fill in the table. Values may be used more than once. Not all values will be used.
This table summarizes the results of your analysis
Based on these data alone, identify the best hypothesis for the species identity of your sample.
The sample is most likely S. salar (Atlantic salmon) because the 20-base nucleotide sequence is an exact match to the S. salar standard.
x

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