Thousands of biochemical reactions All require Metabolism transforms matter & energy & obeys the laws of physics Several steps from starting reactant to product Metabolic Pathway 3 steps Each is a separate reaction carried out by a unique and specific enzyme Catabolic Break down complex molecules into simpler ones Release energy Anabolic Build molecules up Consume energy Energy The capacity to cause change Many forms in which some we can use to do work Convert energy from one form to another Kinetic Energy Energy of motion Potential Energy Is stored in the location of matter Gravitational field

High up Electrical field Compressed spring Stored when squished and released when it expands Includes stored chemical energy Thermodynamics Study of transforming energy System-what we are studying Surroundings-everything else around it Open system Energy can go between system and surroundings We are open systems Take in light and release heat Cells are open systems Constant flow of food & waste out, preventing equilibrium Cellular Respiration Energy is coming out of the reaction product Closed System Reactions will eventually reach equilibrium Doesn’t happen in cells and if it did we would be dead

First Law You can transfer and transform it you but can’t create and can’t destroy it Second Law Changes that occur spontaneously that don’t require outside energy increase entropy, or disorder of the universe spontaneously’= “energy favorable” Entropy-dispersal of energy Increases when anything happens We expend energy to keep things in order 2nd law still stands true because the release of heat increases entropy by those heat molecules “running away’ to go form new molecules Free Energy- energy that is available to do work in the cell GAG- directly related to change in total energy AH and he change in entropy AS AH -TATS During Spontaneous change: Free energy decreases & the stability of a system increases System becomes more stable The energy released goes on to do other work GAG is negative Higher G at start than at finish Ex. Guy on platform to guy in water Ex. Diffusion Concentrated to spread out Chemical Reactions Large molecules into small molecules Exercising Reaction Proceeds with a net release of free energy (negative GAG) and is spontaneous Give up energy that can be used for work GAG = negative = gives up energy = spontaneous Undergoing Absorbs free energy from its surroundings

Require energy to come in Instantaneous Not goanna happen unless you put energy in it GAG = positive = requires energy = instantaneous TAP Adenine Troposphere Carries energy in its phosphates Couples the exercising reactions with undergoing reactions Cells Do 3 main kinds of work Mechanical Transport Active Transport Chemical Coupling agents usually TAP Structure gives rise tort its ability Think of it as a energy current “One reaction cost 2 TAP” to do t Adenine Ribose Sugars 3 phosphates Energy is stored between the phosphates When you pop one P off (hydrolysis)0 Adenine Toothpaste and energy is released to Lucile Ex. Glutamine Acid + Ammonia = Glutamine (+3. 4 kcal/mol) Use TAP hydrolysis to do this (-7. 3 kcal/mol) If GAG is bigger than 7. 2 it required 2 TAP & so on and so forth Couple both reactions together TAP transfers the phosphate to do work Uses it for motor proteins that move things around Use it for transport to pump things across the membrane Regenerate TAP by using Catabolic pathways When we break things down, they release energy and that energy is used to pop the inorganic phosphate back on to the ADAPT making TAP Enzymes Usually proteins Speed up reactions by lowering an energy barrier

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Catalyst Is an agent that speeds up a reaction Aren’t consumed by reactions Catalytic protein Every chemical reaction between two molecules requires breaking & making bonds Must overcome the activation energy in order for the reaction to occur; use enzymes to speed up these reactions by lowering the activation energy GAG of the reaction is unaffected Enzymes are pretty specific that bind to specific substrates and create a specific product Substrate- things the enzymes react on Enzymes bind to the substrate and create a enzyme-substrate complex This is called he active site (lock & key- enzyme is lock and substrate is key) Once the substrate is in there, the enzyme grabs old of it and causes an induced fit Brings chemical groups of the active site into positions to catalyst the chemical reaction Its cycle Lowers barrier


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