A) their cells make different types of lipids.
B) their cells have some differences in the sequence of nucleotides in their nucleic acids.
C) their cells make different types of large biological molecules.
D) their cells make different types of proteins.
E) their cells have different small organic molecules
A) hydroxyl groups
B) either hydroxyl or carboxyl groups
C) carbonyl groups
D) either carbonyl or carboxyl groups
E) carboxyl groups
E) fatty acids
B) lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids all consist of only macromolecular polymers
C) nucleic acids
A) ionic bonding of monomers
B) phosphodiester linkages
D) dehydration reactions
E) the formation of disulfide bridges between monomers
A) Dehydration reactions can occur only after hydrolysis.
B) Dehydration reactions assemble polymers, and hydrolysis reactions break down polymers.
C) Dehydration reactions eliminate water from lipid membranes, and hydrolysis makes lipid membranes water permeable.
D) Dehydration reactions ionize water molecules and add hydroxyl groups to polymers;
hydrolysis reactions release hydroxyl groups from polymers.
E) Hydrolysis creates monomers, and dehydration reactions break down polymers.
A) C18 H32 016
B) C18 H10 O15
C) C18 H36 018
D)C3 H6 O3
E) C6 H10 O5
B) glycogen and chitin only
E) glycogen, cellulose, and chitin
B) carbohydrate and monosaccharide only.
C) carbohydrate and lipid only.
A) as a hexose
B) as a monosaccharide
C) as a pentose
D) as a disaccharide
E) as a polysaccharide
A) They are both structural components of the plant cell wall.
B) They are cis-trans isomers of each other.
C) They can both be digested by humans.
D) They are both used for energy storage in plants.
E) They are both polymers of glucose
A) It is a polymer composed of enantiomers of glucose, it is a storage polysaccharide for energy in plant cells, it is digestible by bacteria in the human gut, and it is a major component of plant cell walls.
B) It is digestible by bacteria in the human gut.
C) It is a major structural component of plant cell walls.
D) It is a storage polysaccharide for energy in plant cells.
E) It is a polymer composed of enantiomers of glucose.
A) humans have enzymes that can hydrolyze the a glycosidic linkages of starch but not the glycosidic linkages of cellulose.
B) the monomer of starch is glucose, while the monomer of cellulose is glucose with a
C) humans have enzymes that can hydrolyze theglycosidic linkages of starch but not the a
glycosidic linkages of cellulose.
D) the monomer of starch is glucose, while the monomer of cellulose is galactose.
E) humans harbor starch-digesting bacteria in the digestive tract.
A) They contain more hydrogen than unsaturated fats having the same number of carbon atoms.
B) They are one of several factors that contribute to atherosclerosis.
C) They are more common in animals than in plants.
D) They have multiple double bonds in the carbon chains of their fatty acids.
E) They generally solidify at room temperature.
B) nucleic acid.
E) fatty acid.
A) They are made from glycerol, fatty acids, and phosphate.
B) They contain less energy than proteins and carbohydrates.
C) They contain nitrogen.
D) They are made by dehydration reactions.
E) They are insoluble in water.
A) The hydrogenated vegetable oil has more “kinks” in the fatty acid chains.
B) The hydrogenated vegetable oil has fewer trans fatty acids.
C) The hydrogenated vegetable oil stays solid at room temperature.
D) The hydrogenated vegetable oil has a lower melting point.
E) The hydrogenated vegetable oil is less likely to clog arteries
A) They have double bonds between carbon atoms of the fatty acids.
B) They are usually produced by plants.
C) They are the predominant fatty acid in com oil.
D) They are the principal molecules in lard and butter.
E) They are usually liquid at room temperature.
C) a contractile protein
D) an enzyme
E) a steroid
A) creating cis double bonds to the fatty acids
B) adding hydrogens and trans double bonds to the fatty acids
C) creating trans double bonds to the fatty acids
D) adding hydrogens to the fatty acids
E) adding cis double bonds and trans double bonds to the fatty acids
A) They are not soluble in water.
B) They contribute to atherosclerosis.
C) They are hydrophilic compounds.
D) They are made of fatty acids.
E) They are essential components of cell membranes.
A) the addition of a water molecule.
B) the release of a water molecule.
C) the release of a nitrous oxide molecule.
D) the release of a carbon dioxide molecule.
E) the addition of a nitrogen atom
A) different structural and optical isomers
B) different asymmetric carbons
C) different side chains (R groups) attached to the amino groups
D) different side chains (R groups) attached to a carboxyl carbon
E) different side chains (R groups) attached to an a carbon
A) removal of a water molecule
B) both removal of a water molecule and formation of a hydrogen bond
C) formation of a hydrogen bond
D) addition of a water molecule
E) formation of a glycosidic bond
A) are synthesized from subunits by dehydration reactions.
B) all contain nitrogen in their monomer building blocks.
C) are decomposed into their subunits by dehydration reactions.
D) are synthesized as a result of peptide bond formation between monomers.
E) are synthesized from monomers by the process of hydrolysis.
A) triacylglycerides and proteins only
C) triacylglycerides, polysaccharides, and proteins
A) secondary structure
B) quaternary structure
C) primary structure
D) secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures, but not primary structure
E) tertiary structure
A) peptide bonds
B) peptide bonds, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bonds
C) disulfide bonds
D) phosphodiester bonds
E) hydrogen bonds
A) hydrogen bonds between the amino group of one peptide bond and the carboxyl group of another peptide bond
B) disulfide bonds
C) hydrophobic interactions
D) peptide bonds
E) hydrogen bonds between the R groups
A) peptide bonds
B) ionic bonds
C) disulfide bonds
D) hydrogen bonds
E) hydrophobic interactions
D) primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary
A) ionic bonds.
B) hydrogen bonds.
C) peptide bonds.
D) covalent bonds.
E) polar bonds.
A) Organization of a polypeptide chain into a “A” helix or “B” pleated sheet
B) Overall protein structure resulting from the aggregation of two or more polypeptide subunits
C) Bonding together of several polypeptide chains by weak bonds
D) unique three-dimensional shape of the fully folded polypeptide
E) Order in which amino acids are joined in polypeptic chain
associated with an accumulation of misfolded polypeptides?
A) diabetes mellitus only
B) Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s only
C) Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and diabetes mellitus
D) Parkinson’s only
E) Alzheimer’s only
A) X-ray crystallography
B) both X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy
C) NMR spectroscopy
E) analysis of amino acid sequence of small fragments
A) in the interior of the folded protein, away from water
B) on the exterior surface of the protein, interacting with water
C) in the interior of the folded protein, away from water, or in a transmembrane portion interacting with lipid fatty acid chains
D) anywhere in the protein, with equal probability
E) in the transmembrane portion interacting with lipid fatty acid chains
B) analysis of amino acid sequence of small fragments
C) NMR spectroscopy
D) high-speed centrifugation
E) X-ray crystallography
A) transmit genetic information to offspring
B) Form the genes of higher organisms
C) Act as a pattern or blueprint to form DNA
D) Function in the synthesis of protiens
E) make a copy of itself, thus ensureing genetic continuity
A) a pentose sugar and a purine or pyrimidine
B) a nitrogenous base and a pentose sugar
C) a phosphate group and an adenine or uracil
D) a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group
E) a nitrogenous base, a phosphate group, and a pentose sugar
A) ribose and deoxyribose
B) guanine and adenine
C) adenine and thymine
D) cytosine and uracil
E) thymine and guanine
A) adenine and thymine
B) cytosine and guanine
C) uracil and cytosine
D) guanine and adenine
E) thymine and uracil
A) the reaction of a fat, forming glycerol and fatty acids with the consumption of water
B) the reaction of two monosaccharides, forming a disaccharide with the release of water
C) the synthesis of a nucleotide from a phosphate, a pentose sugar, and a nitrogenous base with the production of a molecule of water
D) the synthesis of two amino acids, forming a peptide with the release of water
E) the reaction of a fat, forming glycerol and fatty acids with the release of water
A) 5′-ATGC-3′ with 5′-GCAT-3′
B) 5′-AGCT-3′ with 5′-TCGA-3′
C) 5′-purine-pyrimidine-purine-pyrimidine-3′ with
D) 5′-GCGC-3′ with 5′-TATA-3′
E) All of these pairs are correct.